Intra-assay and inter-assay
coefficient of variation were, respectively, 5.3-6.7% and 8.2-9.7% for TNF-α; 4.7-8.3% and 6.70-10.0% for IL-6; 6.9% and 13.1% for C-Reactive protein; and, 2.4-10.3%, and 8.0-12.0% for cortisol. The homeostasis model assessment for estimating insulin resistance (HOMAIR) was calculated as the check details product of fasting glucose times fasting insulin expressed in conventional units divided by 405 . Psychosocial and pain questionnaires Participants completed the SF-36 Quality of Life (QOL) inventory to determine changes in quality of life scores throughout the length of the study . The SF-36 QOL inventory assesses a number of physical and mental components including physical functioning (i.e., PF477736 nmr ability to perform most vigorous physical activities without limitation
to health); role physical (i.e., ability to work and perform daily activities); bodily pain (i.e., limitations due to pain); general health (i.e., assessment of personal health); vitality (i.e., feelings of energy); social functioning (i.e., ability to perform normal social activities); Eltanexor mouse role emotion (i.e., problems with work or other daily activities); and, mental health (state of feelings of peacefulness, happiness, and calm). This instrument has been shown to be
a valid indicator of psychosocial dimensions that may be influenced by general improvements in health and/or weight loss. Perceived knee pain was determined using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) following procedures developed by Denegar & Perrin . In addition, the Western Ontario and McMasters University Osteoarthritis Index Ponatinib purchase (WOMAC™ 3.1 Index) was used to assess dimensions of pain, joint stiffness and disability in knee and hip osteoarthritis using a battery of 24 questions . Statistical analysis Baseline demographic data (i.e., age, height, weight, percent body fat, BMI) were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Data were normally distributed and did not require transformation prior to statistical analysis. Related variables were grouped together and analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with repeated measures (PASW Statistics 18.0.2 [Release April 2, 2010], SPSS Headquarters, Chicago, IL). Non-correlated variables were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. Delta values were calculated and analyzed on select variables by ANOVA for repeated measures to assess changes from baseline values. Data were considered statistically significant when the probability of type I error was 0.05 or less.