It can be observed that the current and charge for both
positive and negative scans for the oxygenated solution are higher than those of the deoxygenated solution. This discrepancy MAPK Inhibitor Library clinical trial is due to the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the GO surface for both the positive and negative scans in the oxygenated condition, which can be expressed as follows: Figure 1 CV results over 40 cycles at a 25-mV·s -1 scan rate. For electroreduction of GO to ERGO in 6 M KOH. (a) Oxygenated solution, (b) deoxygenated solution, and (c) total CV charge over 40 cycles for the positive and negative scan in the oxygenated and deoxygenated 6 M KOH solutions. It should be noted that different types of graphene selleck kinase inhibitor such as graphene nanosheets  and porous graphene  are also good electro-catalysts for ORR in lithium-air cells. Graphene-based materials are also finding importance in the ORR such as chemically converted graphene , nitrogen-doped graphene , polyelectrolyte-functionalized graphene , and graphene-based Fe-N-C materials . Therefore, the higher current and charge for each scans for the oxygenated solutions are due to the ORR which occurs concurrent with the reduction of GO to ERGO. When the solution was deoxygenated, the total charge for the negative scan was always higher than the total
charge for the positive scan. This trend reveals that there was a net reduction current for each scan that could be attributed to the electrochemical reduction of GO to ERGO in the deoxygenated solution. FTIR and Raman spectra Figure 2a shows the FTIR of GO and ERGO films. The FTIR spectrum shows all the characteristic bands for GO: C-O stretching at 1,051 cm-1, C-OH stretching at 1,218 cm-1, OH bending at 1,424 cm-1, stretching of the sp2-hybridized C=C bond at 1,625 cm-1, C=O stretching at 1,730 cm-1, and finally the OH stretching at 3,400
cm-1. The FTIR of ERGO retains all characteristic bands of GO, except that the peak of C=O stretching at 1,730 cm-1 has completely disappeared, which shows that the C=O functional Progesterone group in GO was reduced during the voltammetric cycling. The FTIR of ERGO also shows the appearance of new peaks at 2,950 and 2,870 cm-1, which are due to the CH2 and CH vibrations, respectively. The C=C peak is still present at selleck inhibitor around 1,610 cm-1 which also suggests that the CH2 and CH vibrations at 2,950 and 2,870 cm-1, respectively, could be due to the reduction of the COOH groups in GO to CH2OH. Figure 2 GO and ERGO (a) FTIR spectra and (b) Raman spectra. Figure 2b shows the Raman spectra for GO and ERGO, respectively, where two typical peaks for GO can be found at 1,361 and 1,604 cm-1, corresponding to the D and G bands, respectively.