from VL Thai patients Samples used in this study were collected from five autochthonous VL patients reported from Phang-nga, check details Trang, Songkla, and Stun provinces, southern Thailand. All patients presented with hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. Amastigotes were identified under microscope from Giemsa-stained bone marrow smears in all cases. Two axenic cultures of promastigotes were obtained using bone marrow aspirates in Schneider’s medium supplemented with 20% FBS. Genotypic characterization was processed on three positive clinical samples (i.e., Giemsa-stained bone marrow smears and buffy coat) and two cultured promastigotes. The information of these samples is shown in Table 1. Table 1 The characteristics of five samples of autochthonous leishmaniasis used in this study Isolates Location Year of isolation Clinical presentation of leishmaniasis HIV
coinfection Source of DNA Sequence accession no. [reference] SSU-rRNA ITS1 hsp70 cyt b CU1 Songkhla 2011 VL# Yes Culture JX195633 JX195639 KC202883 JX195635 PCM1+ Phang-nga 2007 VL Yes Bone marrow smear JN885899  EF200012  not sequenced JX195636 PCM2§ Trang 2010 CL* and VL Yes Culture JQ280883  JX195640 KC202880 JX195634 PCM4 Stun 2010 VL No Bone marrow smear JN087497 JX195637 KC202882 not sequenced PCM5 Trang 2011 CL and VL Yes Buffy coat not sequenced not sequenced KC202881 not sequenced +, this isolate was previously described in the study by Sukmee et al. ; §, this isolate JNK-IN-8 solubility dmso was previously described as Trang strain in the study by Bualert et al. ; #, visceral leishmaniasis; *, cutaneous leishmaniasis. Ethics statement The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Royal Thai Army Medical Department, Thailand. No information on the patients was presented Protein tyrosine phosphatase in this study. DNA preparation DNA was extracted from the Giemsa-stained smears of bone marrow using modified FTA extraction paper (Whatman, Bioscience, USA) following the protocol as previously described . The Genomic DNA Mini Kit (Tissue) (Geneaid, USA) was used to extract the DNA from other three remaining samples. PCR amplification PCR assays were used to amplify a
fragment of four genetic loci using the previously described conditions, i.e., SSU-rRNA , ITS1 region , hsp70 , and cyt b . The PCR products were subjected to electrophoresis on 1.5% agarose gels and stained with SYBR safe (Invitrogen, USA). Gels were photographed and documented on high-density printing paper using Uvisave gel documentation system I (Uvitech, UK). Cloning and sequencing PCR products amplified from the four loci were purified using a Wizard® SV Gel and PCR Clean-Up System (Promega, Madison, USA) according to the manufacturer instructions and then directly sequenced. For the PCR products that had insufficient amounts of DNA for direct sequencing, they were cloned in E. coli competent cells to produce a higher quantity of identical DNA.