Moreover, we find that the screen effect also highly depends on t

Moreover, we find that the screen effect also highly depends on the length of nanowires on the field emission performance. The turn-on fields increase from 6.6 to 13.6 V μm−1, and β values LOXO-101 mouse decrease from 1,857 to 699 after the 10-h growth. The screen effect is predominated after the length of nanowires increases, namely the longer growth time, thereby degrading the field emission performance. Consequently, the turn-on fields and β values change from 13.6 V μm−1 and 699 to 6.6 V μm−1 and 1,857, respectively, as the growth time of Sn-doped ITO NWs decreases into 3 h. The detailed screen effect in terms of electrical potential and NW density was investigated

in details. The findings provide an effective way

of improving the field emission properties for nano-emitter application. Acknowledgment This work was supported by the National Science Council, Taiwan, under grant number NSC-99-2221-E-007-069-MY3. References 1. Ngamsinlapasathian S, Sreethawong T, Suzuki Y, Yoshikawa S: Doubled layered ITO/SnO learn more 2 conducting glass for substrate of dye-sensitized solar cells. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 2006, 90:2129– CrossRef 2. Kamei M, Yagami T, Takaki S, Shigesato Y: Heteroepitaxial growth of tin-doped indium oxide films on single crystalline yttria stabilized zirconia substrates. Appl Phys Lett 1994, 64:2712–2714.CrossRef 3. Ohta H, Orita M, Hirano M, Tanji H, Kawazoe H, Hosono H: Highly electrically conductive indium–tin–oxide thin films epitaxially grown on yttria-stabilized zirconia (100) by pulsed-laser Lepirudin deposition. Appl Phys Lett 2000, 76:2740.CrossRef 4. O’Dwyer C, Szachowicz M, Visimberga G, Lavayen V, Newcomb S, Torres C: Bottom-up growth of fully transparent contact layers of indium tin oxide nanowires for light-emitting devices. Nat Nanotechnol 2009, 4:239–244.CrossRef 5. Gao J, Chen R, Li DH, Jiang L, Ye JC, Ma XC, Chen XD, Xiong QH, Sun HD, Wu T: UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires. Nanotechnol

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