Parasitological studies, including thick smears or Strout’s conce

Parasitological studies, including thick smears or Strout’s concentration Doxorubicin molecular weight method, and CSF smears (ideally after centrifugation) are usually necessary [60]. Biopsy specimens may also aid in the

diagnosis if other tests are equivocal. As there is often misdiagnosis, failure to respond to initial treatment for toxoplasmosis should raise suspicion in high-risk patients. Currently, it is recommended that all HIV-seropositive people with epidemiological risk factors for Chagas disease be tested for antibodies to T cruzi to detect latent infection and, if positive, should be further evaluated, in discussion with a specialist tropical disease centre, for neurological, intestinal and cardiological disease. Therapy for Chagas disease should be co-ordinated with the local tropical medicine service (category IV recommendation). The recommended treatment for acute primary infection or reactivation Chagas disease in HIV-seropositive patients is benznidazole 5 mg/kg daily divided in two doses for 60–90 days. A higher dose may be needed in acute meningo-encephalitis.

Nifurtimox 8–10 mg/kg daily divided in three doses for 60–120 days is considered an alternative. PD-332991 Following treatment, secondary prophylaxis with benznidazole 5 mg/kg three times weekly is recommended: there is no evidence to guide the optimum duration, but the duration is likely to be governed by the same factors as other opportunistic infections and be influenced by the immunological and virological response

to HAART. These drugs have important side-effects and treatment should be supervised by a specialist tropical disease centre. For asymptomatic individuals seropositive for T. cruzi, or individuals with chronic disease, a course of treatment with benznidazole or nifurtimox (regimens as above) should be considered. For individuals with virological suppression and immunological responses to HAART, the risks and benefits of treatment should be considered on a case by case basis [61,62]. Individuals not taking, and unable to or unwilling to start, HAART should be offered treatment with benznidazole or nifurtimox. Following treatment, secondary prophylaxis is not usually required for asymptomatic individuals seropositive for T. cruzi if on HAART, but if the individual is not able to take PJ34 HCl HAART, options are either to consider secondary prophylaxis, if the benefits outweigh the risks, or alternatively to monitor the patient closely off further treatment. There is no role for primary prophylaxis. The prognosis is now generally considered to be good [63]. Since clinical cases and reactivation are related to CD4 T-cell count, it is logical that HAART will decrease the incidence of reactivation and, anecdotally, receipt of HAART has been associated with a slower tempo of disease progression in those with disease [59].

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