pre 1 = 60 min selleckchem before swimming, pre 2 = 2 min before swimming the first 100
m, I and III 2 min after both 100 m swimming, II and IV 8 min after both 100 m swimming, * Indicates a significant (p < 0.05) difference compared to PL. Bicarbonate, base excess There were significantly greater values in blood bicarbonate and base excess values in SB and in PFT�� molecular weight BA + SB at every measurement point (except pre 1) compared to the PL values (Figures 5A and 5B). Figure 5 Blood bicarbonate and base excess values (mean ± SD) in the supplemented groups in different measurement time points. A) Blood bicarbonate (B-Bicarbonate) and B) base excess (B-Base excess) values (mean ± SD) in the supplemented groups in different measurement time points, PL = placebo, SB = sodium bicarbonate, BA + PL = beta-alanine and placebo, BA + SB = beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate, pre 1 = 60 min before swimming, pre 2 = 2 min before swimming the first 100 m, I and III 2 min after both 100 m swimming, II and IV 8 min after both 100 m swimming, * Indicates a significant (p < 0.05) difference compared to PL. Discussion Main results The primary findings from this
investigation were GANT61 cell line that there was a significantly less attenuation in swim time for the second 100 m sprint following SB supplementation. However, co-supplementation of SB with BA did not add any further benefit. Swim times The subjects that ingested SB swam the second 100-m sprint 1.5 s (2.4%) faster Tacrolimus (FK506) compared to the PL trial. This improvement confirms the results previously reported by Mero et al. , who used a similar testing protocol and
reported a 0.6 s (p < 0.05) improvement in subjects ingesting SB. Also in support of the present results, Gao et al. , demonstrated that pre – exercise supplementation with SB does not improve the first sprint but may be beneficial in later repetitions. In swimming races, an improvement of 1.5 s in performance may have a decisive effect on success in the final competition. During swimming competitions swimmers are often required to perform multiple heats during one day [32, 33]. For example, in the 2012 London Olympics a female swimmer came in first in semifinals 200-m free style and then won the gold medal 15 min later in the 100-m backstroke. In our study the combined SB and BA supplementation did not improve swimming times. Recently Hobson et al.  showed that chronic BA and acute SB supplementation improved 2000 m rowing performance and they concluded that the addition of acute SB to chronic BA supplementation may further enhance rowing performance. They used a BA dose of 6.4 g per day during four weeks. In our study we used only 4.8 g per day for four weeks. Muscle carnosine is important in buffering and the muscle content is dependent on BA ingestion  it would be interesting to use either bigger doses and/or longer supplementation periods in future studies.