Prostate secretions, albeit only representing 20–30% of the total SP volume, are in direct and immediate contact with the major numbers of spermatozoa Idasanutlin order and are the first
SP portion to confront the cervical canal. The protein contents consist of three major proteins, all under hormone regulation: PSA (Zinc-binder, Kallikrein family, mainly released in prostasomes but also produced by the Littré glands), prostatic acid phosphatase and the cysteine-rich prostate-specific protein-94 (PSP-94, β-inhibin-β-microseminoprotein).54,55 PSA primary function is the liquefaction of the coagulum by hydrolysing semenogelins, while prostatic acid phosphatase and the PSP-94 have enzymatic, respectively, growth factor action. As per the Cowper’s gland (which is difficult to sample isolated), it contains
an extremely abundant protein: mucin.2 As well, peptides are a major component of the SP albeit most of them are either fragment products of SP proteins or sperm-associated peptide hormones.15 Other enzymes are also present in the SP, such as glycosidases [β-glucuronidase (BG), α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), etc.].2 Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase, LDK378 an enzyme present in the stallion and boar SP, is of epididymal origin,6,56 and related to male fertility.57–59 Other enzymes, such as lipases60 or matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), relate to semen quality.61,62 In addition to enzymes, the SP of most species contains protein compounds similar to those present in blood plasma, such as pro-albumin, albumin, α-,
β- and γ-globulins, transferrin, some immunoglobulins, complement factors and differential amounts of cytokines and chemokines,63–66 as studied in thawed SP derived from individual or pooled whole ejaculates post-liquefaction. Whether these Staurosporine clinical trial cytokines are related to inflammation in the male genital tract (i.e. prostatitis67) or are in direct relation to the presence and amounts of shed leucocytes68,69 remains to be fully studied. Besides, there are specific amounts of pro- and anti(or tolerance related)-cytokines.70,71 Moreover, there are differences regarding their source, which calls for differential studies of ejaculate fractions. In that direction, we have studied SP of different categories of human samples grouped as (i) whole ejaculates (control) (ii) samples with low-zinc levels, e.g. vesicular vesicle-dominated samples, (iii) ejaculates from men with agenesia of the seminal vesicles, e.g. prostata-dominated secretion and (iv) ejaculates post-vasectomy, e.g. without sperm-, testicular or epididymal fluid exposure, and detected a rather large number of cytokines and chemokines.