Raha et al (2012) analysed land transformation on a few islands

Raha et al. (2012) analysed land transformation on a few islands in the Indian Sunderbans using maps and satellite images from 1924 to CHIR98014 chemical structure 2008, again demonstrating the utility of geoinformatics for the study of climate change induced sea level rises. Over recent decades, evidence of increases in extreme weather events such as tsunami, cyclones, hurricanes, droughts, heat waves and heavy precipitation events have accumulated. They

have enormous direct and indirect human, environmental, and economic impacts. Such events are expected to become more severe and frequent with changes in climate and tectonics. Considering a given probability distribution of occurrence for any climatic parameter, changes in mean values such as increased temperature, as well as increased variance in amplitude, will inevitably lead to more frequent and more intense extreme events at one tail of the distribution (Meehl et al. 2000) Extremes at the minimum end of a given parameter will virtually disappear when climatic mean values increase, whereas historically unprecedented intensities will arise at the maximum, so that biota will face novel events and habitat conditions. However, science has not yet generated sufficient knowledge on the effects of extreme weather events on ecosystems and

their functioning (Jentsch et al. 2007). In coastal areas, plants have adapted learn more to tolerate diurnal tidal effects through physiological and morphological trait modifications, thereby developing a specialized and complex ecosystem by evolution over tens of thousands of years; those modifications can be eliminated by a tsunami in just a few seconds. Porwal et al. (2012) selleck estimated the extent and magnitude of destruction/alteration, and linked this to distance from the epicentre, coastal topography, and vulnerability to powerful wave actions. Climate change

induced sea level rise (SLR), together with human-modified environments, led to changes in species diversity and productivity in the Sunderbans. Raha et al. (2012) were able to describe Pembrolizumab the scenario using historical records with respect to hydrological conditions, sedimentation load, and morphological processes. Their study advocates a diverse, interdisciplinary, multi-institutional approach, with strong networking, for the conservation of the Sunderban ecosystem. The increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is changing the carbon chemistry of surface seawater, soil, and plants; the roles of all need to be clearly understood through experiment and measurement. Only then can mitigation options, including carbon capture and storage, be prescribed and practiced. Biswas et al. (2012) studied the responses of marine plankton from water samples from the Bay of Bengal coast to incubation under ambient conditions but with high CO2 levels for 5 days.

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