Rosiers et al [9] present estimates of stimulant

Rosiers et al. [9] present estimates of stimulant the site medication use in Flemish students throughout four decades (1965-2005). Past-year use was estimated in the 2.9-5.7% range, with a trend towards higher use in exam periods, and there were no clear gender differences. Probably the most important finding from this study is that the authors did not find any evidence for an increasing trend of substance use, in contrast to features from the United States [10]. Important, however, is the point that medication use in students may be associated with emotional problems. Studying this association could be an important addition to the field that needs to be explored in further research. A third conclusion from epidemiological research is that the use of services for substance use disorders significantly increased over the past decades but still remains inadequate [7,11].

The past decade, there is a trend for science-based treatments gradually becoming more available in clinical settings [12], and specific treatment-related demand research is currently underway. For instance, cannabis-using persons seeking professional treatment consist of a distinct group of persons, not comparable with other substance-using patients [13]. Cannabis-using patients were significantly more likely male, young, student, more often living with their parents, and have been in contact with police or justice. Interestingly, they were also significantly less likely to have entered treatment compared to patients using other substances.

Once patients have entered treatment, assuming that relapses are the rule rather than the exception in treating substance use disorders is quintessential in fine-tuning treatment resources for substance problems. This becomes even more important when resources for mental health treatments are restricted and lead to further deinstitutionalization of health care. Against this, there is a need towards studies that may elucidate the precise effects of inpatient treatment. Despite the high availability of long-term inpatient treatment opportunities for alcohol patients in Belgium, prospective research is scarce. An exception is Vanderplasschen et al. [14]. They found that four in ten patients, six months after discharge from a 3-month treatment program, did not use any alcohol during the follow-up period.

By contrast, about six in ten still reported the use of alcohol and one in four had been drinking excessively during the entire follow-up period. One third was readmitted within six months after discharge. Also, patients were in better emotional condition after six months but a similar study [15] found no differences in emotional health six months after discharge from an alcohol Drug_discovery treatment program. Evidently, more research is needed in order to elucidate the short- and long-term effects of alcohol treatment, on both the level of substance use as the level of emotional health and comorbid mental disorders.

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