Secondary outcome variables include the difference in the percentage of total energy intake as total, complex and simple CHO, proteins and fats between T2DM and non-T2DM participants, percentage of patients with T2DM who adhere to the diet plan, glycaemic control as per American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria5 (glycated buy inhibitor hemoglobin (HbA1c) <7%, fasting blood glucose (FBG) between 70 and 130 mg/dL, postprandial blood glucose (PPBG) <180 mg/dL) and the utilisation pattern of antidiabetic drugs. Statistical analysis and evaluations It was assumed that at least 50% of the total energy intake
comes from CHO and at least 50% of the complex CHO intake comes from total CHO in T2DM participants. Thus, 385 T2DM participants were required to achieve an allowable error of 5% where the allowable error is half the width of a 95% CI. Taking missing data into consideration, we planned
to conduct the survey with a total of 400 participants in each group. All analyses were performed on the eligible participants. The primary descriptive analysis of the data was performed using basic summary statistics. Further descriptive measures such as n, mean, median, SD, first quartile (Q1), third quartile (Q3), minimum and maximum were calculated for continuous variables. Percentages were calculated based on non-missing values. Frequency and percentage were calculated for categorical variables. For continuous variables, the mean change was compared statistically between T2DM and non-T2DM groups using either the independent t test or the Mann-Whitney U test based on normality of the data. The tests were carried out at a 5% level of significance and a p value ≤0.05 was considered as significant. Other comparisons specified in the
secondary variables were carried out similarly. As per recommendations of the National Institute of Nutrition6 (NIN) and Indian Consensus Guideline7 for Healthy Eating, a balanced diet should provide approximately 50–60% of total calories from CHO (preferably from complex CHO), approximately 10–15% calories from proteins, and approximately 20–30% calories from visible Batimastat and invisible fats. Data were stratified as per CHO consumption: below NIN recommendation (<50%), as per recommendation (50–60%), and above recommendation (>60%) to capture the natural distribution of patients within these stratifications. In addition, we also compared the findings with the WHO Expert group recommendations, that is, total CHO should provide 55–75% total energy and that free sugars should provide less than 10% energy.8 For categorical variables, the number and percentage of participants were considered. Continuous data are presented in this article as the mean and SD. Statistical evaluations were performed using the software SAS, V.9.1.3.