Site specific management actions are also required for controllin

Site specific management actions are also required for controlling specific human impacts and livelihood activities and for adapting to the impacts of broader environmental changes. Also consistent with the literature on good governance and development processes, writings on MPA management emphasize the importance of adopting integrated or nested, integrative,

adaptive, transparent, and participatory management processes. To be effective in achieving their potential, MPAs should not be “islands of protection” but nested within Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) or Ecoystem-Based Management (EBM) regimes [4], [11], [190], [191] and [192] ABT-199 molecular weight and/or broader networks of MPAs [51], [143] and [193]. Both ICZM and EBM imply the incorporation of social, economic, cultural, political, and environmental considerations or values at the level of the broader land and seascape into management. For PLX3397 example, coral reef MPAs might be more resilient to the impacts of climate change when combined with the reduction of sedimentation and nutrient loading

and land-based and marine sources of pollution [34]. Networks can improve dispersal and connectivity between MPAs as well as spreading risks through replication of habitats and ecosystems [194] and [195]. Horigue et al. [136] also notes that “scaling up MPAs to form networks is a means to improve management of individual MPAs, and coordinate MPA establishment through collective action and sharing of information and experiences”. Additionally, MPAs can be more effective in supporting fisheries if they are nested within a suite of fisheries management actions outside the boundaries of the MPA [45], [48], [73], [196] and [197]. Active implementation of adaptive management – that

is a deliberate cycle of monitoring, evaluation, analysis, planning, and implementation – can serve to continually correct the course of MPA management strategies [24], Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease [101], [122] and [198]. Adaptive management reflects a shift away from a linear view of the world and recognizes that MPAs are part of a dynamic, non-linear, and complex system [199]. Integrative research stemming from various social and natural science methods and tools in combination with local and traditional knowledge should also inform both broader integration and adaptive management frameworks [40], [45], [53], [73], [79], [122], [143] and [144]. Drew [200], for example, reviews various examples of how folk taxonomy and systematics and local knowledge of populations and ecological relationships can be used to augment western science in MPA management. Finally, there is widespread consensus that meaningful participation in decision-making and inclusion of relevant stakeholders are a necessary pre-cursor to effective management [94] and [122].

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