The most relevant finding of this study is that TLC immunostaining
could potentially identify the presence of aPL in patients with clinical features suggestive of APS not ascertained by traditional tests for aPL, and such identification could have a major impact on the prognosis and therapeutic approach. Moreover, our results suggest the biological activity of these antibodies that are able to trigger a signal transduction see more pathway(s) in endothelial cells with consequent proinflammatory and procoagulant effects in vitro. However, currently testing for TLC immunostaining is not suitable for screening purposes, and larger prospective studies are needed to assess its clinical relevance as a rescue test for patients with suspected APS but persistently negative for conventional find more aPL. This work was supported by grants from Fondazione Umberto di Mario ONLUS, MIUR-PRIN 2007. A patent relating to the content of the manuscript is applying. Fig. S1. Interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) phosphorylation assay and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation by seronegative anti-phospholipid syndrome (SN-APS) immunoglobulin
(Ig)G fraction from three different patients. Eahy926 cells were incubated with SN-APS IgG (200 μg/ml) from three different patients (Table S1, patients 32, 34 and 35, respectively) for 45 min at 37°C and thereafter whole and nuclear extracts were probed with polyclonal rabbit anti-phospho-IRAK (a) or polyclonal rabbit anti-phospho-NF-κB p65 (b), respectively. Bound antibodies were visualized with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated check details anti-rabbit IgG and immunoreactivity was assessed
by enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL). As a control for loading, IRAK blots were stripped and reprobed with polyclonal anti-actin antibody (a), phospho-NF-κB p65 blots were stripped and reprobed with polyclonal anti-histone H1 (b). Fig. S2. Tissue factor (TF) release by seronegative anti-phospholipid syndrome (SN-APS) IgG fraction from three different patients. Cells were stimulated with SN-APS immunoglobulin (Ig)G (200 μg/ml) from three different patients (Table S1, patients 32, 34 and 35, respectively) for 4 h at 37°C. After treatment, the supernatants were collected and analysed using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation from three different experiments. Table S1. Clinical and serological profile of seronegative anti-phospholipid syndrome (SN-APS) patients. “
“The interaction of T cells with antigen-presenting cells is the hallmark of adaptive immunity. In vitro studies have described the formation of an immunological synapse between these cells, and intra-vital imaging has described in great detail the dynamics of these interactions.