The results have not been used yet for describing the energy tran

The results have not been used yet for describing the energy transfer properties, but it was concluded that the concentration of low-energy exciton states in the antenna is larger

on one side of the RC, implying asymmetric delivery of excitation energy to the RC (Adolphs et al. 2010). The authors also proposed experiments to verify their calculations/predictions. Sener et al. (2002) also simulated EET transfer in PSI from Thermosynechococcus elongatus using a Förster-type approach and concluded that the overall transfer process does not depend very much on room-temperature fluctuations of the site energies, which were all chosen to fluctuate around a common average value. Damjanovic et al. (2002) performed quantum-chemical calculations that showed MX69 purchase substantial variations of the site energies of the Chls in PSI, Selleck 4SC-202 leading to an overall absorption spectrum that was in reasonable agreement with the experimental one. However, these values did

not lead to substantial changes in the overall diffusion time of excitations according to Sener et al. (2002). A very insightful modeling study is the one of Yang et al. (2003) in which excitonic interactions are not only used to calculate steady-state spectroscopic properties but are also included to model the excitation dynamics. The authors find that spectral and spatial equilibration outside the RC both occur within 5 ps, whereas the excitation transfer to the primary

donor P700 is responsible for the largest Baricitinib contribution to the trapping time. Omitting the linker pigments in the simulations leads to somewhat slower transfer to the RC, but the overall trapping time is not changed substantially. Interestingly, the transfer from the antenna to P700 proceeds to a large extent via the other Chls in the RC and omitting those from the simulations slows down the transfer to P700 considerably. It is concluded that the combination of linker and RC pigments form a quasi-funnel structure that is highly optimized for efficient trapping. This trapping process is preceded by ultrafast “equilibration” in the antenna (within 5 ps), leading to a so-called transfer equilibrium state, and is followed by charge separation with a time constant between 0.9 and 1.7 ps. However, the actual value of the latter time constant does not influence the overall trapping time to a large extent, in contrast to the situation in trap-limited models. It should, however, be mentioned that not everyone agrees with these results; Muller et al. (2003) have for instance presented a transient absorption study in which it was concluded that charge separation in PSI with red forms is trap-limited. However, we are not aware of any theoretical studies so far that have been able to support this conclusion.

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