Theoretically, antigen-specific tolerogenic DCs can be generated

Theoretically, antigen-specific tolerogenic DCs can be generated in vitro and delivered to patients to correct the dysfunctional immune responses that attack their own tissues or over-react to innocuous foreign antigens. However, DCs are a heterogeneous population of cells with differences in cell surface makers, differentiation pathways and functions. Studies are needed to examine which subset of DCs can be used for what type of applications. Furthermore, most of the information on tolerogenic DCs has been obtained from animal models and translational studies are needed to examine how a DC therapeutic strategy can be implemented

clinically to modulate immunity.”
“To prospectively evaluate the feasibility, GS-7977 safety, and clinical utility of bone radiofrequency (RF) ablation with real-time monitoring of the spinal canal temperature for the treatment of spinal tumors adjacent to the spinal cord.\n\nOur Institutional Review Board approved this study. Patients gave informed consent. The inclusion SRT1720 criteria were (a) a painful spinal metastasis and (b) a distance of 1 cm

or less between the metastasis and the spinal cord. The thermocouple was placed in the spinal canal under CT fluoroscopic guidance. When the spinal canal temperature reached 45A degrees C, RF application was immediately stopped. RF ablation was considered technically successful when the see more procedure was performed without major complications. Clinical success was defined as a fall in the visual analogue scale score of at least 2 points.\n\nTen patients with

spinal tumors measuring 3-8 cm (mean, 4.9 +/- A 1.5 cm) were enrolled. The distance between the tumor and the spinal cord was 1-6 mm (mean, 2.4 +/- A 1.6 mm). All procedures were judged technically successful (100%). The spinal canal temperature did not exceed 45A degrees C in 9 of the 10 patients (90%). In the remaining patient, the temperature rose to 48A degrees C, resulting in transient neural damage, although RF application was immediately stopped when the temperature reached 45A degrees C. Clinical success was achieved within 1 week in all patients (100%).\n\nBone RF ablation with real-time monitoring of the spinal canal temperature is feasible, safe, and clinically useful for the treatment of painful spinal metastases adjacent to the spinal cord.”
“PURPOSE: To evaluate the visual outcome of refractive lenticule extraction in eyes with myopic astigmatism using the Visumax femtosecond laser.\n\nSETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Erfurt, Germany.\n\nDESIGN: Nonrandomized clinical trials.\n\nMETHODS: The data set encompassed treatments of sphere and astigmatism. Vector analysis was performed to study the astigmatic results at each follow-up visit at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months. Visual outcomes were analyzed for the 6-month follow-up period.

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