This has been shown in three studies of pyramidal neurons in the

This has been shown in three studies of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus,39-41 and has also been reported in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex42 and cerebellar Purkinje cells.”43 Some studies found that the neurons are also more closely packed. Outside the cerebral cortex, extensive cytoarchitectural data are limited to the thalamus, for which there are reports of a loss of neurons from the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical dorsomedial and anterior nuclei, though the matter remains controversial. Synapses and dendrites Synapses and dendrites represent a potential site for pathologies that

are undetectable using standard approaches. Because they are hard to visualize directly, proteins localized to these parts of the neuron are used as markers for them.44 Markers of preSelleck WP1066 synaptic terminals are generally reduced in the hippocampus in schizophrenia.44,45 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Hie magnitude of the loss varies according to the individual synaptic proteins (and hippocampal subfields) studied, implying that the

synaptic pathology is not uniform. There is some evidence for preferential involvement of excitatory connections.46 Presynaptic markers may also be reduced in prefrontal cortex, but in this region it is a subset of inhibitory neurons and terminals which appears most Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical affected.47 Complementing these changes, alterations in dendrites have been shown in the neocortex and in the subiculum, with a decreased density of dendritic spines seen in three studies.18 Although unproven, the usual and simplest interpretation is that these changes together reflect fewer (or otherwise aberrant) synaptic contacts being formed and received.44,45,49 There is an encouraging convergence between these synaptic findings and the cytoarchitectural alterations. In particular, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the decreases in presynaptic and dendritic markers are in keeping with the smaller neuronal cell bodies, since the size of the latter is proportional to the dendritic and axonal spread of the neuron.50 It is also consistent with an Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical increased neuronal density, in that dendrites and synapses comprise most of the neuropil and, if this is reduced,

neurons will pack more closely.51 Moreover, it also corresponds with the results of proton magnetic resonance studies, which have shown reductions in the neuronal marker N-acctylaspartate (NAA), as one would predict, if the neurons are on average smaller and have less extensive projections.52 Where and what is the pathology? Most Cytidine deaminase of the positive findings reported in schizophrenia are in the hippocampal formation, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and cingulate gyrus.6,7 However, this may be merely a sign that these areas have been the most intensively studied. Few studies have included a comparison region (eg, striate cortex), and those which have do not provide a clear picture as to the uniformity versus selectivity of cerebral involvement, in schizophrenia.

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