TLR2, in particular, is known to be involved in the recognition o

TLR2, in particular, is known to be involved in the recognition of Mtb. After interaction of a specific structure of the mycobacterial cell wall with TLR2, a signaling pathway cascade is initiated

in which interleukin 1 receptor associated kinase-1 and −4 (IRAK-1/4) associate with TLR2 via the adaptor protein #Wortmannin ic50 randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# MyD88. IRAK-1/4 then phosphorylate and activate the protein TRAF-6 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6), which in turn activates other signaling proteins, including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphoinositide 3-kinase, protein kinase C, and nuclear factor κB. This leads to the transcription of genes involved in the production of nitric oxide (NO) and various cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-10 and IL-12, and promotes activation of the NADPH oxidase complex, which is responsible for ROS production [2]-2 [7]. In the context of initial infection, MØ encounters Mtb prior to being stimulated with the Th1 cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ). However, full activation

of MØ antimicrobial capacity and antigen-presentation MS-275 research buy function only occurs after stimulation with IFN-γ [8]. During infection, Mtb adapts to different nutrient conditions to utilize fatty acids, which are alternative carbon and energy sources for tubercle bacilli. It is generally accepted that Mtb can use cholesterol as a source of carbon and energy. The full suite of genes required for cholesterol degradation has been identified in the Mtb genome, and the inactivation of cholesterol uptake by disruption of the ABC-like transport system has been shown to affect cholesterol degradation [9]. A similar effect was observed following disruption of 3-ketosteroid 1 (2)-dehydrogenase (KstD), 3-ketosteroid

9OH-hydroxylase (KshA/KshB), and the iron-dependent extradiol dioxygenase (HsaC) key enzymes involved in opening the steroid ring structure [10–12]. We have previously shown that tubercle bacilli can accumulate cholesterol in the free-lipid zone of their cell walls [10]. We have also demonstrated that Mtb utilizes cholesterol via the androstenedione/androstadienedione pathway (AD/ADD) using KstD, which initiates steroid ring degradation through transhydrogenation of 3-keto-4-ene steroids to 3-keto-1,4-diene Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK steroids and that KstD is an essential enzyme in this process [10, 13]. The Mtb ∆kstD strain lacking functional KstD accumulates non-toxic cholesterol degradation intermediates, AD and 9OHAD (9a-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione) [10], and is unable to grow on minimal medium supplemented with cholesterol as a sole carbon and energy source. However, the relationship between the altered growth of the ∆kstD mutant strain and the possible attenuation of the infection process has not been previously described. Here, we evaluated the ability of an Mtb strain lacking a functional copy of the kstD gene to grow in human MØ.

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