Tumour Biol 2011, 32:1031–47 PubMedCrossRef 47 Johnson GL, Lapad

Tumour Biol 2011, 32:1031–47.PubMedCrossRef 47. Johnson GL, Lapadat R: Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediated by ERK, JNK, and p38 protein kinases. Science 2002, 298:1911–1912.PubMedCrossRef 48. Guan J, Chen XP, Zhu H, Luo SF, Cao B, Ding L: Involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in multidrug resistance induced by HBx in hepatoma cell line. World

J Gastroenterol 2004, Belnacasan 10:3522–3527.PubMed 49. McCubrey JA, Steelman LS, Abrams SL, Lee JT, Chang F, Bertrand FE, Navolanic PM, Terrian DM, Franklin RA, D’Assoro AB: Roles of the RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/AKT pathways in malignant transformation and drug resistance. Adv Enzyme Regul. 2006, 46:249–279.PubMedCrossRef 50. Chen X, Xia S, Li R, Liu H, Huang Y, Qian X, Xiao X, Xu X, Lin X, Tian Y: Doxycycline enhances the Ras-MAPK signaling and proliferation of mouse thymic epithelial cells. J Cell Biochem 2009, 107:494–503.PubMedCrossRef 51. Arti S, Hillegass JM, MacPherson MB, Beuschel SL, Vacek PM, Pass HI, Michele C, Testa JR, Mossman BT: Blocking of ERK1 and ERK2 sensitizes human mesothelioma cells

to doxorubicin. Mol Cancer 2010, 9:314.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions TY, LFH, ZCN and JYS performed the majority of experiments; see more SSC and TY designed the study and wrote the manuscript; TY and JYS edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths globally. An estimated 222,520 new cases of lung cancer were reported in 2010, which accounted for approximately 15% of cancer diagnoses. This disease accounts for a higher percentage of deaths than any other cancer in both men and women. An estimated 157,300 deaths, which accounted for approximately Verteporfin chemical structure 28% of all cancer deaths, were reported in 2010 [1].

The high rate of mortality is most likely attributed to early metastasis that causes malignant cells to spread to Anlotinib mw various tissues including bone, brain, and liver tissues. The early detection of cancer leads to a better prognosis for reduced mortality and morbidity. The advent of new and emerging molecular, genetic, and imaging technologies has broadened the possible strategies for early detection and prevention. However, the decrease in mortality should be supported by clinical evidence. Proteomics has recently emerged as a powerful technology to identify differential protein expressions associated with cancer development and progression. New strategies that facilitate proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry (MS) have been introduced for biomarker discovery research.

Comments are closed.