and Saltin , although Craig PCI-34051 purchase and Cumming  documented a 10% reduction in VO2max with a similar degree of dehydration (1.9%). Enhanced physical fitness may
be a factor in conferring additional protection against dehydration-induced decrements in VO2max because of the higher plasma volume in certain individuals who are physically more competent than others. While rehydration with either Gatorade or Crystal Light resulted in values of VO2max lower than those of the baseline values, a moderate increase in VO2max occurred upon rehydration with Rehydrate. In athletic competition, the difference between a good performance and the best performance may be relatively narrow. Maughan et al.  concluded that performance improvements,
although they may be minute, are critically important to the outcome of a race, and the athletes involved. For example, a good time for the mile run of 4 min 10 sec (250 sec) is only 4% slower than an elite-level time of 4 min. VO2max is a sensitive predictor of performance only when correlations are made among a broad range of abilities. Furthermore, a comparison of the VO2max of top runners revealed no relationship between VO2max and race times . The provision of glucose polymers (maltodextrin) as transportable carbohydrates in addition Sapanisertib solubility dmso to fructose in Rehydrate might have conferred some performance benefits. The generally higher gastric emptying rate of glucose polymer solutions than that of free glucose solutions  may result in increased intestinal absorption and nutrient supply
to the active muscles . Solutions containing glucose polymers possess a higher energy density than simple sugar containing beverages with similar osmolality  and also show the ability to maximize glycogen re-synthesis in the muscles . Glucose polymers undergo degradation to glucose by salivary and pancreatic amylases and mucosal glucoamylase in the upper gastrointestinal tract, resulting in a more prolonged absorption, utilization and oxidation than that obtained with simple sugars [30, 31]. The rate of oxidation of maltodextrin is higher than that of fructose [10, 32]. Their find more combination, however, may facilitate sustained conversion/oxidation Enzalutamide ic50 in the body and produce higher oxidation than that obtained with single carbohydrates , delaying the onset of fatigue, sparing endogenous carbohydrate reserves, and thus enhancing endurance. Both oral L-glutamine and oral glucose polymer, present in Rehydrate, promote the storage of muscle glycogen while the ingestion of L-glutamine and glucose polymer together enhance the storage of carbohydrate outside of skeletal muscle [34, 35], the most feasible site being the liver. The metabolism of L-glutamine is an indicator of pyruvate generation and metabolic capacity during cycling exercise in humans .