To test nematode and bacteria association in H2O2 oxidative condi

To test nematode and bacteria association in H2O2 oxidative conditions, first, nematodes were surface sterilized and the concentration was adjusted to 150 nematodes per 50 μl of sterilized DW, and performed

1 h nematode-bacteria association as described above. After 1 h contact with bacteria, nematodes were washed and re-suspended in sterilized DW. A 96-well plate was prepared as follows: each well received 50 μl of different H2O2 concentrations (prepared previously in double) and 50 μl of each treatment (nematode-bacteria association, nematode alone and control (DW). Three independent biological replicates with three technical replicas per experiment were used for each treatment. . Mortality of nematodes was scored after 24 h. Nematodes were considered dead, if no movements were observed after INCB024360 cost mechanical stimulation. Gene expression analysis of B. xylophilus catalases Catalase (CTL) was selected as the antioxidant enzyme to infer selleck compound gene expression differences toward the effect of H2O2 in the nematode-bacteria association. The amino acid sequences of C. elegans catalases (Ce-CTL-1, -2, -3) were obtained from WormBase (http://​www.​wormbase.​org/​), and used as templates for a TBLASTN search in the B. xylophilus Ka4 genome. The retrieved best matches were predicted as Bxy-CTL-1 and Bxy-CTL-2 of B. xylophilus. Predictions about general topology,

domain/family, and active sites conserved were made using online tools available at Expasy WWW pages (http://​www.​expasy.​org/​tools/​). Gene expression of Bxy-ctl-1 and Bxy-ctl-2 were analysed by qRT-PCR using SYBR® green assay. Total RNA was extracted from 24 h-stressed

nematodes (treatments: nematodes alone and nematode-bacteria association) in 15 mM H2O2, using CellAmp Direct RNA Prep Kit for RT-PCR (Real time) (Takara Bio Inc., Japan) and following manufacturer’s instructions. The concentration and quality was measured using NanoVue plus spectophotometer (GE filipin Healthcare Life Sciences, USA). Total RNA (adjusted for concentration of 50 ng/μl) was reverse transcribed using Oligo dT primer and PrimeScript RT enzyme from PrimeScript™ RT reagent Kit (Perfect Real Time) (Takara Bio Inc., Japan). Quantitative RT-PCR was performed using CFX96™ Real-Time (Bio-Rad), and SYBR Premix Ex TaqTM II (Tli RnaseH Plus) kit (Takara Bio Inc., Japan). The housekeeping actin gene Bxy-act-1 was used as an internal control gene for calculation of relative expression levels of each antioxidant gene [52]. Primers were designed using Prime 3 software [53] and tested for specificity prior to qPCR. The primers used for Bxy-act-1, Bxy-ctl-1 and Bxy-ctl-2 genes amplification were listed in Additional file 3: Table S1. Two independent biological replicates with two technical replicas per experiment were used for each qPCR test. No template controls (NTC) were prepared for each qPCR run.

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