3%) that encodes an aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme Qnr gene pre

3%) that encodes an aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme. Qnr gene prevalence was higher in the K. pneumoniae (41.7%) isolates than in the E. coli (25%) isolates, which has been noted by other authors [24, NU7441 manufacturer 40]. The aac(6 ′ )-Ib-cr gene accounted for 94.3% (33/35) of the aac(6 ′ )-Ib genes detected. This high proportion of aac(6 ′ )-Ib-cr/aac(6 ′ )-Ib was also observed in a previous study [40]. The PMQR genes qnr and aac(6 ′ )-Ib-cr are now recognized to be geographically

widespread [24, 25]. These genes have been previously reported to be associated with ESBLs. The horizontal transfer of plasmids harboring genes encoding for ESBLs and PMQR genes could have promoted this co-resistance. The cassette region could not be amplified by PCR in 23 class 1 integron-containing isolates, which may have been due to the lack of the 3′CS. The analysis of 25 cassette regions revealed a predominance of aadA and dfrA genes, which confer resistance to aminoglycosides and trimethoprim, respectively. This result correlates

with previous studies of African Enterobacteriaceae isolates [27, 41]. The combination of dfrA17-aadA5 (22%) was the one most frequently detected in our study. Similar findings selleck chemical were reported for isolates from Taiwan and Tunisia, as dfrA17-aadA5 was found in 81 of 224 (36%) and in 3 of 4 (75%) E. coli class 1 integrons, respectively [42, 43]. Analysis of the phylogenetic groups and virulence Selleck Fludarabine factors of E. coli isolates revealed that most of these isolates belong to group A1. The phylogenetic group A1 consists of commensal enteric E. coli and may therefore be the natural reservoir of pathogenic

isolates. Pathogenic E. coli isolates may have derived from commensal isolates by acquiring chromosomal or extra chromosomal virulence operons [44]. Although virulence determinants are considered to be mobile, strain phylogeny and virulence may be linked [45]. The B2 phylogenetic group, which diverges from the commensal isolates, evolved toward extra intestinal virulence by acquiring numerous pathogenic determinants [12]. We also Liothyronine Sodium encountered an E. coli isolate belonging to group B2, harboring bla CTX-M-15 and other resistance genes, and corresponding to the worldwide pandemic clone O25b-ST131. It has been reported that most O25-ST131 isolates are multidrug-resistant, produce CTX-M-15 ESBL enzymes [14] and harbor virulence genes required for pathogenic invasion of hosts. In one study, the genes for adhesins (iha, fimH), siderophores (fyuA, iutA) and the toxin (sat) were found in 95% – 100% of the O25b-ST131 E. coli isolates [14], but typical fimbriae and pilus genes, such as those encoded by the papA allele, were not. In Africa, few data exist on the presence of ST131. In a South African study, 43% of 23 isolates were ST131 [46]; as were 50% of the CTX-M-15-producing E. coli isolates collected in the Central African Republic [13].

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