Nakamura S, Kuroda T, Sugai T, Ono S, Yoshida T, Akasaka I, Nakas

Nakamura S, Kuroda T, Sugai T, Ono S, Yoshida T, Akasaka I, Nakashima F, Sasou S: The first reported case of intestinal spirochaetosis in Japan. Pathol Int 1998, 48:58–62.PubMedCrossRef 41. Chauvatcharin S, Siripatana C, Seki T, Takagi M, Yoshida T: Metabolism analysis and on-line physiological state diagnosis of acetone-butanol fermentation. Biotechnol Bioeng 1998, 58:561–571.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they

have no competing interests. Author’s contributions WR, RMG, DXS, ABT and GSF designed the study and acquired the data; SG, AP, LFB and TAR interpreted and analysed the data; PCFM and JCde LY2874455 mouse O drafted and wrote the manuscript; JCde O, TAR, LFB and PCFM revised intellectual and critically the manuscript. All of the authors approve the final version of the manuscript.”
“Introduction Exercise in hot environments can cause a reduction in plasma

volume due in part to the thermoregulation via sweating, which can decrease the blood supply to the muscle tissue. If fluid loss continues and is not replaced with water and electrolytes, body fluid distribution will then limit the appropriate delivery of oxygen and substrate to the working YH25448 order muscle [1]. Furthermore, heat exposure, hyperthermia, and dehydration affect the brain’s ability to function normally and can adversely impact cognitive performance whereby thermal sensation and mood state may be altered. While much is known regarding the physiology of dehydration, the psychological effects are less clear due in part to inconsistent data in the experimental literature. Dehydration and other adverse physiological stressors Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase have been shown to have a negative impact on mood state [2, 3]. Such mood changes can then impact cognitive function [4, 5]. Exercise can also impact blood selleck kinase inhibitor glucose levels, as the body requires the use of glucose to fuel physical

activity [6]. Strenuous, prolonged exercise can result in hypoglycemia, as the blood’s level of glucose may become lower because it is utilized to allow for continued physical activity. Reduced levels of glucose may exhibit as physical symptoms including shakiness, hunger, nervousness, sweating, dizziness, confusion, visual disturbance, and weakness [7]. Reduced blood sugar and the subsequent symptoms have been observed across a variety of populations following strenuous exercise, including both professional and amateur athletes [8–10]. Existing literature also indicates glucose does not directly affect hydration status. A study by Hargreaves and colleagues reported that after 40 minutes of exercise in the heat, continuous administration of glucose did not alter plasma volume or hydration status [11]. These results may be attributes to experimental methodologies, such as timing of fluid replacement and environmental conditions (i.e., temperature and exercise duration), both of which can impact fluid homeostasis.

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