7–12 Other observations underline the need to study the differenc

7–12 Other observations underline the need to study the differences between human

and NHP immune responses: a humanized anti-CD28 monoclonal superagonist antibody caused severe side-effects in a phase 1 clinical trial;13 it induced a delayed and sustained Ca2+-influx in human CD4+ T cells, but not in CD4+ T cells from NHPs.14 Any experimental study of cellular, adaptive immune responses addresses also T-cell homeostasis, the active and dynamic process by which immune cells mature traffic and produce cytokines upon activation. Key elements of the analysis of adaptive cellular immune responses are (i) T-cell subsets (CD4/CD8, CD8αα+ memory T cells) in concert with differentiation and homing markers (CD45RA, CCR7, CD28, CD27, CD62L),15 cytotoxicity (measure of CD107a) and cytokine production (polyfunctionality);16 (ii) regulatory Idasanutlin mw T cells (Tregs);17 and (iii) the response to interleukin-7 (IL-7), a key cytokine for T-cell survival, homeostasis and T-cell memory.18 T-cell compartment composition and phenotype has been studied Selleck LDK378 previously in rhesus macaques19,20

with a limited panel of immune markers. Different combinations of immune markers were used in these studies to define memory and effector T-cell compartments in rhesus monkey.21 To our knowledge, the current report analyses for the first time the simultaneous expression of CD45RA, CCR7, CD27 and CD28 in T-cell subsets

in healthy rhesus monkeys. We took advantage of a high-content, multicolour flow cytometry to assess the distribution of immune cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from female rhesus monkeys (defined by expression of CD45RA, CCR7, CD28, CD27, CD107a, IL-7 receptor α-chain), to compare cytokine [IL-2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)] production in T-cell subsets, IL-7-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT-5) phosphorylation, and Treg frequencies. Peripheral blood was obtained from 16 healthy human donors (19–66 years, median 31 years) from the Blood Bank (Ethical Permit DNR 00-097). Peripheral blood was obtained from 27 female rhesus macaques (Macaca Staurosporine chemical structure mulatta) of Chinese origin with an age range between 3 and 4 years housed in the Astrid Fagraeus laboratory at the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control. Housing of the animals and care procedures were in compliance with the provisions and general guidelines of the Swedish Animal Welfare Agency, the Local Ethical Committee responsible for Animal Experiments approved all procedures (protocol DNR238/2006-54). The PBMCs were isolated from freshly obtained, heparinized peripheral blood by Ficoll–Hypaque density gradient centrifugation. Immune marker analysis was performed on freshly isolated PBMCs by a standard Ficoll procedure from heparinized blood samples.

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