Both adaptive and innate immune effector mechanisms are believed

Both adaptive and innate immune effector mechanisms are believed to contribute to tissue disease aetiology. HLA-E is a non-classical MHC class Ib molecule that acts as the ligand for the NKG2A inhibitory receptor present on natural killer (NK) and CD8+ cells. Peptide binding and stabilization of HLA-E is often considered to signal infection or cell stress. Here we examine the up-regulation of HLA-E in MS brain tissue. Expression is significantly increased in white matter lesions in the brain of MS patients compared with Y-27632 concentration white matter of neurologically healthy controls.

Furthermore, using quantitative immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, we show increased HLA-E protein expression in endothelial cells of active MS lesions. Non-inflammatory chronic lesions express significantly less HLA-E protein, comparable to levels found in white matter from controls. Increased HLA-E protein levels were associated with higher scores of inflammation. These PLX4032 cost results suggest the potential for an effect in central nervous system pathogenesis from HLA-E modulation in stressed tissue. Co-localization with infiltrating CD8+ cells implicates a possible role for HLA-E-restricted regulatory CD8+ cells, as has been proposed in other autoimmune diseases. “
“Perforin (P) is a prototypical cytotoxic molecule involved in cell-mediated immunity against various pathogens, alloantigens and particularly different tumours. The purpose

of this study was to determine P expression in different lymphocyte subpopulations isolated from

peripheral blood and prostate tissue of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa) and compare it with the P expression found in the control group. Twenty subjects were recruited in each of the groups. Prostate mononuclear cells of the BPH and PCa tissues were isolated ID-8 by enzymatic digestion and gradient density centrifugation, whereas peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated by gradient density centrifugation alone. Cells and tissue samples were labelled using monoclonal antibodies against P and different surface antigens (CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD56) and analysed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Total P expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes did not differ significantly between BPH/PCa patients and control group, although the BPH and PCa tissue showed lower P expression level. A negative correlation between prostate-specific antigen levels and the overall percentage of P+, CD3+CD56−P+, and CD3−CD56+P+ cells in the prostate tissue was observed only in patients with PCa. Our findings indicate that the low frequency of P+ lymphocytes, including T, NKT and NK cells, in the prostate tissue of patients with BPH and, particularly, PCa could be the consequence of local tissue microenvironment and one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of prostate hyperplasia following malignant alteration.

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