By contrast,

the attenuation of signalling in Siglec-G-de

By contrast,

the attenuation of signalling in Siglec-G-deficient mice under the same conditions may be insufficient to prevent B-cell activation and antibody secretion. Alternatively, accumulating B1-like B cells in dnRAG1 mice may be intrinsically resistant to (auto)antigenic stimulation. This possibility is supported by experiments showing that B cells from dnRAG1 mice exhibit impaired responses BAY 73-4506 supplier toward antigenic stimuli in vitro and immunization by thymus-independent antigens in vivo (Fig. 3). Whether genetic manipulation of BCR signalling pathways in dnRAG1 mice can promote (auto)antibody production in these animals is a focus of future investigation. Both the B1 and the MZ B-cell populations are known to be enriched for cells with poly-reactive and/or weakly self-reactive BCRs.53 B cells with such specificities could be potentially dangerous if allowed to undergo affinity maturation toward host antigens, but are generally Lumacaftor solubility dmso tolerated by the host because of the useful role they play in recognizing bacterial antigens to promote early immune responses against these organisms.45,46

There remains some uncertainty over the extent to which BCR specificity controls lineage specification of B1 B cells.54 The data presented here suggest that splenic B1-like B cells accumulating in dnRAG1 mice acquire this phenotype based on their BCR specificity, because enforced expression of a heavy chain transgene specific for

Calpain dsDNA (56Rki) in dnRAG1 mice blocks their accumulation, and instead promotes expansion of MZ-like B cells (Fig. 7). The latter result is particularly interesting in light of evidence showing that anti-dsDNA B cells that fail to edit BCR specificity away from dsDNA, but that possess cross-reactivity toward intracellular antigens, may acquire the phenotype of a B cell found in the MZ and remain sequestered there as a means to escape editing pressure.55 The fact that B cells with a B1 phenotype are normally detected at low levels in the spleen, but are significantly increased in dnRAG1 mice, raises the question of whether B cells normally present in this compartment have been positively selected into this reservoir, or whether this population represents a safe anatomical repository for peripheral B cells that have attempted to undergo receptor editing, but still retain vestiges of self-reactivity at levels that are tolerated by the host. These possibilities are not necessarily mutually exclusive. The selection model of B1 B-cell differentiation argues that if this self-specificity is retained, then the B cell would adopt a B1-like phenotype. The expansion of splenic B1 B cells in dnRAG1 mice suggests that the antigenic specificities represented in this population are tolerated by the host if they cannot be successfully edited.

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