By contrast, current knowledge on symbionts of nematodes is still

By contrast, current knowledge on symbionts of nematodes is still mainly restricted to Wolbachia and its interaction with filarial worms that lead to increased pathogenicity of the infected nematode. In LDN-193189 datasheet this review article, we aim to highlight the main characteristics of symbionts in term of their ecology, host cell interactions, parasitism and co-evolution, in order to stimulate future research in a field that remains largely unexplored despite the availability of modern tools.”
“Purpose: To compare a three-dimensional (3D) T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) magnetic resonance (MR) sequence (VISTA; Philips Medical Systems, Best, the Netherlands) with a two-dimensional (2D) T2-weighted TSE

sequence in terms of image quality, signal intensity (SI) difference ratios, Nutlin-3a supplier conspicuity, and staging of uterine tumors.

Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was waived. Sixty-one women (mean age, 53.0 years +/- 13.7 [standard deviation]; range, 30-87 years) with cervical carcinoma (n = 28), endometrial carcinoma (n = 21), or leiomyoma (n = 30) of

the uterus were included. Patients underwent T2-weighted MR imaging at 3 T with both 1-mm-thick 3D and 5-mm-thick 2D T2-weighted TSE sequences. Three-dimensional T2-weighted TSE images were reconstructed at 5-mm thickness with the aid of a workstation. Quantitative analyses of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and SI difference ratios between tumors and other tissues and qualitative analyses of image quality

and tissue conspicuity were performed. Two radiologists independently PCI-34051 manufacturer assessed local-regional staging for carcinomas. Quantitative values, qualitative scores, and tumor staging were analyzed by using the paired t test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, and McNemar test, respectively.

Results: Mean myometrial SNR was higher on 3D than 2D images (14.3 vs 9.8; P < .0001). Mean SI difference ratios between cervical (0.45 vs 0.34; P < .0001) or endometrial (0.46 vs 0.40; P = .044) carcinomas and gluteal muscle were higher on 3D images, but those between leiomyoma and myometrium (0.33 vs 0.43; P < .0001) were lower than those on 2D images. Image quality (P = .0004) and carcinoma conspicuity (P < .0005) were superior with the 3D T2-weighted TSE sequence. Although multiplanar reconstruction of 3D T2-weighted TSE images was useful for staging in one case, there were no significant differences between 3D and 2D T2-weighted TSE imaging in accuracy of staging for the two readers for cervical or endometrial carcinoma.

Conclusion: The 3D T2-weighted TSE sequence showed certain advantages over the 2D T2-weighted TSE sequence, and it has the potential to improve the performance of MR imaging for the evaluation of uterine carcinoma. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“Background: Increased pulmonary blood flow in patients with left-to-right shunt has been shown to be associated with alterations in prostacyclin-synthesis.

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