Mammalian toll like receptors are members of the pattern recognit

Mammalian toll like receptors are members of the pattern recognition receptor family that plays a central role in the initiation of innate cellular immune responses and the subsequent adaptive immune responses to microbial pathogens. Two TLRs, TLR4 and TLR9, were both observed to be expressed dif ferentially upon separate infection with F4ab and F4ac Cabozantinib side effects ETEC, while no TLRs expressed differentially after F18ac ETEC infection. TLR4, which acts as the lipopoly saccharide receptor, is implicated in the me diation of inflammatory response to gram negative bacteria. It is worth to note that in our present study both F4ab and F4ac infections down regulated the TLR4 mRNA expression. The possible reasons are as follows, Some bioactive molecules like vasoactive intestinal peptide could depress the active effects of LPS and TNF on TLR4 expression.

The expression of the receptor of VIP, the vasoactive intes tinal peptide receptor 1, was both up regulated after F4ab and F4ac ETEC separate infection, leading to a down regulated expression of TLR4. To maintain the homeostasis of the IPEC J2 cells, some epigenetic mechanisms, like histone deacetylation and DNA methylation, down regulated Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the expression of TLR4. On the other hand, TLR9, which recognizes unmethylated cytidine phosphate guanosine DNA motifs, was both over expressed in the IPEC J2 cells separately infected with F4ab and F4ac ETEC. Greens et al. found 58 Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries genes differentially expressed between IPEC J2 cells cocultured with F4 ETEC for 4 h and IPEC J2 cells at 0 h using Porcine Genome Array, at a multiplicity of infection of 1 bacteria to 10 IPEC J2 cells.

They also demonstrated up regulation of a range of innate immune response genes including IL 8, CXCL2 IL1A, but whose fold changes were far smaller than those here. The most obvious differences between the two studies are the numbers and the magnitude of fold changes of differen tially expressed genes induced by ETECs infections. In the current study, after Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries infection with F4ab, F4ac and F18ac ETEC separately, 2443, 3493 and 867 differentially expressed genes Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries were identified in the IPEC J2 cells, respectively. It is likely that the main cause for the differences between this Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries study and that of Geens et al is the MOI used as well as differences in ETEC strains. Niewold et al.

used cDNA arrays to investigate the genomic impact of ETEC K88 on jejunal segments in four piglets, and showed sig nificant differential regulation of on average fifteen tran scripts in mucosa, with considerable mean individual variation. Interestingly, Niewold et al. found the com mon expression for a limited number of genes including PAP MMP 1, and STAT3 at 8 h post infection. Since STAT3 in epithelial cells mediates mucosa protective and anti inflammatory functions, and MMP 1 is one number of pro inflammatory MMPs, it is evident that the final outcome of inflam matory response depends on a balance between anti inflammatory STAT3 and pro inflammatory MMP 1.

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