The ability to metabolize acetaldehyde, a compound produced by t

The ability to metabolize acetaldehyde, a compound produced by the catabolic breakdown of alcohol, is impaired in some Japanese or Chinese Individuals, resulting In flushing and discomfort after moderate amounts of alcohol. Molecular genetics made it possible to Identify polymorphisms

In genes that Intervene In the pharmacokinetics of alcohol (eg, the enzymes aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase).17 Recent research findings have shown the genetic association or linkage of alcoholism to genes that also play a role In other psychiatric inhibitor Veliparib disorders and In the response to drug treatment. Examples Include Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the association of alcoholism with the y-amlnobutyric acid receptor GABAA 18 (GAB A is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the CNS); the linkage of suicidally, severe suicide attempts, and alcoholism to the tryptophan hydroxylase gene19 (the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT]); the linkage of antisocial alcoholism to the autoreceptor 5-HT1B gene20; and the linkage of severe and antisocial Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical alcoholism to the dopamine D2 and D4 receptor genes.21 Alcoholism and drug treatment Alcohol Interferes with the central metabolism of the neurotransmitters – especially indolamines Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical – involved In the pathophysiology and drug treatment of mood disorders.

Several lines of research support an important role for brain 5-HT pathways in the control of alcohol drinking behavior. It Is known that drinking Increases the rate of 5-HT turnover and decreases the platelet uptake of 5-HT.22 Serotonergic

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical compounds reduce ethanol selfadministration In conditioned rats.23 Results are consistent with activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor subtypes In mediation of the conditioned or secondary reinforcing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical properties of ethanol. The observation that alcohol modifies neurotransmitter function Is part of the rationale for the psychopharmacological treatment of alcoholism. It was shown that men and women who are diagnosed with major depression at the time that they are admitted for Inpatient treatment of alcohol dependence have shorter times to first drink and alcohol relapse.24 This suggests that It is of paramount Importance to diagnose and treat comorbid depression In alcoholic patients who are seen for treatment. Antidepressants have shown efficacy In the treatment of alcoholism Brefeldin_A with comorbid depression, and sometimes even In the absence of comorbid depression. In particular, antidepressants have been helpful In the reduction of craving and relapse rates during detoxification. When antidepressant treatment should be started Is debatable. Antidepressant treatment should certainly be Initiated If depression persists after 2 to 4 weeks of alcohol withdrawal. However, certain authors recommend using antidepressant drugs much earlier, in order to diminish alcohol consumption, craving, and the risk of relapse.

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