A sequencing study performed on a recurrent HCC after surgical re

A sequencing study performed on a recurrent HCC after surgical resection showed 10 different alterations and distinct cell populations across the primary tumor and the recurrence.16, 17 Authors were able to identify molecular aberrations BMS-777607 molecular weight that favored clonal outgrowth and conferred a more aggressive phenotype. Overall, these studies raise several concerns about the validity of single tumor-biopsy to infer genomic information

applicable in patient decision-making. In other words, is the whole model of personalized oncology jeopardized until tools are available to accurately assess intra-individual tumor heterogeneity? Certainly, the presence of molecular heterogeneity introduces a new variable in the personalized oncology approach. Intra-individual heterogeneity probably explains why, despite effective blockade of oncogenic addiction loops, we are

still unable to attain a 100% complete response rate and cure the disease. It may also justify why targeted therapies in solid tumors are less effective compared with hematological malignancies. Nonetheless, there PI3K inhibitor are still many unanswered questions, such as the accurate distribution of the different mutational variants present in a given tumor and their predominance in tumor progression. Liver biopsy results are subject to sample variability and require a careful interpretation. In HCC, noninvasive criteria are accepted for the diagnosis of this neoplasm,18, 19 but recent guidelines recommend collecting tissue samples in a systematic

manner in the context of clinical trials and research studies.19 Study investigators testing molecular heterogeneity using next-generation sequencing are encouraged to determine whether additional mutations identified in different tumor sites or in multiple tumors have any functional impact on progression, resistance Pregnenolone to therapy, and dissemination of this cancer. Our studies exploring transcriptomic heterogeneity within single early HCC tumors showed quite homologous molecular subclasses in samples obtained from the same nodule, albeit no next-generation testing was conducted.20 In conclusion, solid evidence indicates that blocking oncogenic addiction loops improves survival in cancer patients (Table 1), even when drivers are evaluated in a single tumor biopsy. These examples reflect what Gerlinger et al. state at the end of their Discussion: “larger series will probably identify genes that can be targeted in the trunks of the phylogenetic tree for each tumor type.” Hence, despite its limitations, working with single biopsies for exploring common oncogenic drivers improves outcome in patients with cancer. This does not diminish the need for new readouts of tumor biology and heterogeneity (e.g., tumor circulating cells and functional imaging21).

, A S , and V C conducted the laboratory work related to IP-10

, A.S., and V.C. conducted the laboratory work related to IP-10. The primary statistical analysis was conducted by J.Gr., J.J.F., G.J.D., J.B., and A.R.L. Protease Inhibitor Library clinical trial All authors reviewed data analysis. J.Gr. wrote the first draft of the article. All authors contributed to and approved the final article. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article. “
“Aim:  Only seven cases of liver transplantation (OLT) with positive serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) grafts have been reported in the world till now. Here

we report the 4-year follow-up results and clinical pathologic characteristics of two recipients of chronic hepatitis B transplanted with HBsAg-positive cadaveric liver grafts from asymptomatic carriers. Methods:  Lamivudine combined with hepatitis B immune globulin were used for the control of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in both of the recipients

post-OLT. The selleck chemical liver functions, virus status and pathologic characteristics of two recipients were followed up according to the rounte protocol of Liver Transplantation Center of West China Hospital. Results:  The serum HBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) turned negative within 30 days post-OLT, but HBsAg remained positive for both of the recipients during follow up. HBV breakthrough occurred in one recipient at the month 12 post-OLT, with detectable serum HBV-DNA (740 copies/mL) and tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate motif mutation (rtM204I and rtM204V). After the replacement of lamivudine by adefovir dipivoxil 10 mg daily for 2 months, serum HBV-DNA of this recipient became undetectable again and maintained undetectable during follow up. Both of the recipients have survived for more than 4 years post-OLT, with stable liver function and mild hepatitis. Conclusion:  Due to extreme scarcity of liver graft, we think that HBsAg-positive liver graft without active HBV-DNA replication and severe pathological manifestation from asymptomatic carriers may deserve consideration when no other graft is available in a bearable waiting time. “
“Background: Through 5 years of treatment with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in mostly naïve

patients, we reported sustained viral suppression with regression of fibrosis, and reversal of cirrhosis in 74% of patients (Lancet 2013;381:468-75). Further, no evidence Selleck Abiraterone of resistance to TDF was seen through Year 6 (J Hepatol. 2014;59:434-42). Here we present Year 8 results, the initially pre-specified end of study period, for two Phase 3 studies in HBeAg- and HBeAg+ chronic hepatitis B patients. Methods: After 48 weeks of double-blind comparison of TDF to adefovir dipivoxil, all patients were eligible to continue open-label TDF. Patients were assessed every 3 months for efficacy and safety; resistance surveillance was performed annually, and annual bone mineral density (BMD) assessments by DXA were included starting at Year 4.

2 These cells may be akin

2 These cells may be akin CDK inhibitor review to the small hepatocyte-like progenitors (SHPCs) described by Gordon and colleagues.3 Cell foci resembling SHPCs have also been observed in retrorsine-treated hepatitis B surface antigen

(HBsAg) transgenic mice that have chronic liver injury.4 In the mouse, evidence has been proffered for a parenchymal stem cell niche close to the portal area. By labeling cells with bromodeoxyuridine after a necrogenic dose of acetaminophen, and then administering another dose 2 weeks later to induce several divisions of previously labeled cells, so-called label-retaining cells (LRCs), which are considered to be slowly dividing stem cells, were found, both as cholangiocytes of interlobular ducts and peribiliary hepatocytes and so-called null cells.5 Likewise, in human liver, rare putative stem cells that strongly GDC-0980 price express STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and the embryonic

stem cell pluripotency-associated factors Oct4 (octamer 4) and Nanog are also located near portal tracts.6 Moreover, using mitochondrial DNA mutations as markers of clonality, we have also found clonally-derived populations of hepatocytes in human liver that also appear to have their origins close to portal areas.7, 8 A seemingly distinctively different stem cell compartment appears to be activated from within the smallest branches of the intrahepatic biliary tree in response to overwhelming liver injury, chronic

liver injury,9 or large-scale hepatocyte senescence,10 and can be demonstrated in a transgenic mouse model of fatty liver and DNA damage.11 This so-called “oval cell” or “ductular reaction” amplifies a cholangiocyte-derived (biliary) population before these cells differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Oval cells are thought to be derived from the canal of Hering, and while in rodents this canal barely extends beyond the limiting plate, but in human liver, the canal of Hering extends to the proximate third of the lobule (Fig. 1B).12 So, would the liver be unique in having functionally distinct stem cell populations, one for “physiological growth” that maintains tissue homeostasis, and one (the biliary cell–derived HPCs) that acts as a back-up, SB-3CT essentially for regenerative growth after tissue injury? A number of studies point to this state of affairs in many tissues.13, 14 This would include small intestine,15, 16 olfactory neuroepithelium,17 corneum,18 hair follicle,19 and the hematopoietic system.20 The recent article by Furuyama and colleagues now suggests the boundaries between the apparently distinct stem cell populations in the liver are somewhat blurred.21 This new study explored the role of the embryonic transcription factor Sox9 (sex determining region Y box 9) in three embryologically-related organs: liver, pancreas, and duodenum.

— The objective of this study is to determine headache triggers i

— The objective of this study is to determine headache triggers in soldiers and military beneficiaries seeking specialty care for headaches. Methods.— A total of 172 consecutive US Army soldiers and military dependents (civilians) evaluated at the headache clinics of 2 US Army Medical Centers completed a standardized questionnaire

about their headache triggers. Results.— A total of 150 (87%) patients were active-duty military members and 22 (13%) patients were civilians. In total, 77% of subjects had migraine; 89% of patients reported at least one headache trigger with a mean of 8.3 triggers per patient. A wide variety of headache triggers was seen with the most common categories being environmental factors (74%), stress (67%), consumption-related factors selleck chemicals llc (60%), and fatigue-related factors (57%). The types of headache triggers identified in active-duty service members selleck screening library were similar to those seen in civilians. Stress-related triggers were significantly more common in soldiers. There were no significant differences in trigger types between soldiers with and without a history of head trauma. Conclusion.— Headaches in military service members are triggered mostly by the same factors as in civilians with stress being the most common trigger. Knowledge of headache

triggers may be useful for developing strategies that reduce headache occurrence in the military. “
“Gastroparesis is a chronic stomach disorder manifested by delayed emptying of solids and liquids without evidence of mechanical obstruction. Evidence from pharmacokinetic and gastric motor studies conducted over the past 40 years shows that delayed

gastric emptying often occurs in migraine. This paper provides a general overview of gastroparesis for the headache specialist, discusses the research on the association of gastroparesis and migraine, and considers the clinical implications of that association. The nature, causes, correlates, and consequences of gastric stasis in migraine are just beginning to be elucidated; much further stiripentol study is warranted. The data available to date show that gastric stasis in migraine appears to be clinically important. Evidence from both pharmacokinetic studies and studies measuring gastric motor function suggests that gastric stasis may delay absorption of an orally administered drug, delay its peak serum concentrations, and delay its effectiveness. These results suggest that oral migraine medications, which rely on absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, may be affected in the presence of migraine-associated gastric stasis. Several non-oral formulations that do not rely on gastrointestinal absorption are available or in development for the treatment of migraine and symptoms of gastroparesis. Gastroparesis is a chronic stomach disorder manifested by delayed emptying of solids and liquids without evidence of mechanical obstruction.

26 Recently, PBMs have been used to define the DNA-binding specif

26 Recently, PBMs have been used to define the DNA-binding specificity of large classes of TFs27, 28 and have been shown to correlate well with gel shift results.29 Whereas as others have pioneered the technology using the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of TFs purified from bacteria, here we adapt the PBM technology to more closely approximate physiological conditions. Because HNF4α has a very strong dimerization domain outside of the DBD and a very low affinity for DNA when expressed in bacteria,14, 30, 31 we ectopically

expressed full-length, native HNF4α in COS-7 cells and prepared minimally processed nuclear extracts (Fig. 1B) that we then applied selleck screening library directly to a PBM specifically designed for HNF4α (Fig. 1C,D). The PBM was developed with a highly specific antibody to the C-terminus of HNF4α (Supporting Fig. 1), allowing us to examine a completely native TF. The full-length HNF4α protein RGFP966 manufacturer in the crude extracts yielded an excellent signal with a range of intensities, whereas extracts from mock-transfected cells yielded no reproducible signals (Fig. 1E). We compared two species (rat and human) and two isoforms of HNF4α (HNF4α2 and HNF4α8), as well as antibodies that recognized different regions of HNF4α (Fig. 2A). There was an excellent correlation between replicate arrays in the first-generation

PBM (PBM1) using crude nuclear extracts, regardless of antibody used (R2 = 0.78), and results with affinity-purified protein were very similar to those with crude extracts (R2 = 0.68) (Fig. 2B). In a second generation of the PBM (PBM2), different HNF4α isoforms (HNF4α2 versus HNF4α8) and species (human versus rat) also produced excellent correlations (R2 > 0.9), indicating that these isoform and species differences do not influence the binding of HNF4α to DNA. This is not surprising considering that the DBD is identical in these constructs (Fig. 2A). PBM1 identified ∼500 new HNF4α binding sequences with the DR1-derived sequences exhibiting the best binding affinities relative to negative controls 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl (P

< 8.274 × 10−12) (Fig. 3A ). Sequences derived from ChIP-chip analysis bound roughly as well as the DR1 variants. In PBM2, an additional ∼1000 novel sequences that strongly bind HNF4α were identified, including sequences identified by SVM1. The signal-to-noise ratio (literature-derived versus random sites) was also significantly improved in PBM2 due to optimization of the binding conditions (P < 2.6 × 10−11 versus P < 2.6 × 10−16, respectively, using the Student t test) (Fig. 3B). The PBM2 results also correlated very well with gel shift results (Fig. 3C). Additionally, SVM2 derived from PBM2 predicted binding sequences with a high degree of accuracy (R2 = 0.76) (Fig. 3D). Even though position weight matrices (PWMs) do not capture the interdependence between the positions in a motif as do PBMs and SVMs, they are useful for describing motifs.

A blocking peptide (BP), previously proven to inhibit CD81–E2 int

A blocking peptide (BP), previously proven to inhibit CD81–E2 interaction,21 sequence CSPQYWTGPAC [OH], and control scrambled peptide CPWSAGYTQPC [OH] were prepared by the Organic Synthesis Core, Royal College of Surgeons, Ireland (purity >98%). HuT 78 cells (American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD) were cultured in Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1640 medium (Gibco, Paisley, UK) containing supplements.16 Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), Tigecycline mw obtained from healthy volunteers, were separated on Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient (Fresenius

Kabi Norge AS, Oslo, Norway). The effect of HCV infectious serum on IL-2 production was tested using PBMCs from normal donors stimulated with plate-bound anti-CD3 or anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 (Pharmingen, San Diego, CA). For these experiments, normal/PCR+/PCR− serum (100 μL in a final volume of 500 μL serum-free medium) was incubated with cells for 1 hour prior to stimulation. HCVcc was generated as described.22 Briefly, RNA was transcribed in vitro from full-length genomes using the Megascript T7 kit (Ambion, Austin, TX) and electroporated into Huh-7.5 cells. High-titer stocks were generated

by 2 serial passages through naïve Huh-7.5 cells. Supernatants were collected at 72 and 96 hours after infection, pooled, concentrated, and stored at −80°C. Permission was received from the Ethics Committees of both St Vincent’s and St James’s Hospitals, Dublin, for all work on human tissue. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects.

Normal liver wedge biopsies were obtained from donor organs. HCV-infected this website liver was obtained at time Interleukin-3 receptor of transplantation for end-stage liver disease. Liver samples were immediately washed three times in Hank’s balanced salt solution and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen, powdered using the Braun Mikrodismembrator II (Braun Apparate, Melsungen, Germany). Protein was extracted from ≈100 mg powdered tissue using 300 μL of lysis buffer (1% detergent Igepal, 0.5% deoxycholic acid, 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in phosphate-buffered saline) containing protease inhibitors. The extract was passaged several times through a 21-gauge needle (Beckton Dickinson) in lysis buffer, incubated on ice for 30 minutes, and centrifuged at 10,000g for 10 minutes at 4°C. Supernatant was harvested and total protein was quantified using the BCA Protein Assay Kit (Pierce, Rockford, IL). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded explant liver sections were immunostained with anti-CD3 or isotype-matched immunoglobulin G (DAKO) using the avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase method (Vectrastain Elite ABC Kit, Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA). Sections were microwaved for antigen retrieval in a 0.1 M sodium citrate buffer for 12 minutes prior to staining. Sections were evaluated for the presence of CD3+ cells using an Olympus light microscope by two independent observers.

This review discusses these emerging new paradigms of INH-induced

This review discusses these emerging new paradigms of INH-induced DILI and highlights recent insights into the mechanisms, as well as points to the existing large gaps in our understanding of the pathogenesis. Isoniazid (INH) remains a widely used and effective first-line agent for the treatment of tuberculosis, although newer drugs are being developed to face the challenge of emerging multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium

tuberculosis.[1] Staurosporine cost Acute tuberculosis is mostly treated with a multidrug therapy approach (including rifampicin or pyrazinamide), but INH monotherapy is typically used in the treatment of latent tuberculosis. Shortly after its introduction to the market in 1952, INH was recognized to be associated with Saracatinib cost rare cases of liver injury, and the drug received a black box warning as early as 1969. The exact incidence of INH-induced liver injury is difficult to estimate retrospectively, mainly due to notorious underreporting and the contribution of comedications to these adverse effects.

However, recent comprehensive prospective studies that included patients from different countries have revealed that the incidence of serious INH-induced liver injury is well in the previously published range of 1–3% of treated (exposed) patients.[2-4] Thus, these numbers place INH among the top-ranking drugs regarding their potential to cause drug-induced liver injury (DILI), although the absolute numbers of INH-related DILI cases are smaller

than those of other drugs that are given to much larger patient populations. Despite extensive research over several decades, the underlying mechanisms of INH-induced DILI have remained poorly understood. One of the reasons is the complexity of these mechanisms and the difficulty to distinguish between drug-related mechanisms (that determine the hazard) and patient-related Dipeptidyl peptidase mechanisms (that determine the actual risk) (Fig. 1a). Traditionally, the drug-specific mechanisms (determined by the chemotype) have included the generation of reactive metabolites leading to hepatocellular injury, while the patient-specific determinants of susceptibility have long been considered to be genetic polymorphisms and other mutations in genes coding for some of the drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in the bioactivation and detoxication pathways of INH. However, recent analyses on mechanisms and risk factors associated with INH hepatotoxicity have revealed that there are still important gaps in our understanding of its pathogenesis;[5-7] therefore, these classical paradigms need to be revisited. For example, novel experimental data suggest that there may be previously unrecognized mechanisms, including INH-induced activation of the adaptive and innate immune system, disruption of endogenous metabolism, and mitochondrial dysfunction that may be implicated in INH hepatotoxicity.

Bracteacoccaceae was erected by Tsarenko (2005), who included Pla

Bracteacoccaceae was erected by Tsarenko (2005), who included Planktosphaeria in this family along with Bracteacoccus. As discussed above, LBH589 concentration Planktosphaeria falls within another clade, the herein proposed Schizochlamydaceae. The algaebase.org database lists Chromochloris as a member of the Bracteacoccaceae, but this inclusion was not supported by our analyses. We propose that Bracteacoccus, at present, be the only genus in Bracteacoccaceae. Bracteacoccaceae are terrestrial coccoids that reproduce via aplanospores or biflagellate zoospores with unequal flagella. Their ultrastructure was studied by Kouwets (1993, 1996 – cell cycle) and Watanabe and Floyd (1992 – zoospores). The

coccoid strain SAG 2265 was isolated from the Namib desert and while morphologically very similar to other Bracteacoccus-like

algae, phylogenetically appeared very distinct in all our analyses. We therefore propose a new genus name for it, Tumidella. The desert strain UTEX B2977, isolated from Carlsbad Caverns, NM represents a new, distinct Bracteacoccus-like lineage, for which we suggest the genus name Bracteamorpha. The two genera are genetically very divergent from one another, and from all other genera included in this study. They are morphologically similar to one another and their relatives, but stand out, find more in that they appear capable of sexual reproduction, unlike any of their close relatives. Because their relationship as sister taxa was not recovered in most analyses (Fig. 2, Fig. S2), we propose two new family names to accommodate these

http://www.selleck.co.jp/products/forskolin.html divergent lineages: Bracteamorphaceae and Tumidellaceae. Our analyses suggest that Bracteacoccaceae, Bracteamorphaceae, Radiococcaceae, Schizochlamydaceae, and Tumidellaceae form a clade of mostly coccoid coenocytic algae with multiple chloroplasts per cell, mostly capable of zoospore production. However, as discussed above, other Bracteacoccus-like algae are found outside of this clade: Chromochloris, Pseudomuriella, and Rotundella. The genus Chromochloris was resurrected by Fučíková and Lewis (2012) and currently contains one species, C. zofingiensis (Dönz) Fučíková & L. A. Lewis. According to our multi-locus analyses, Chromochloris represents a lineage distinct from any recognized family, and we therefore establish Chromochloridaceae to harbor this genus. Chromochloris is morphologically similar to Bracteacoccus, as it is polyplastidic and multinucleate, lacks pyrenoids, and produces biflagellate zoospores. Its vegetative ultrastructure was described in Kalina and Punčochářová (1987). Likewise, the genus Dictyochloris represents another early diverging sphaeroplealean lineage that clearly falls outside of Radiococcaceae, wherein it currently is classified. We therefore propose the Dictyochloridaceae to accommodate this taxon.

Results — The number of migraine attacks and headache days per mo

Results.— The number of migraine attacks and headache days per month decreased significantly CH5424802 mw from baseline for

both Groups A and B. Subjects in Group A had considerably more adverse events leading to study withdrawal than in Group B (18% vs 4%). Though this study was not powered to directly compare the efficacy of the 2 drugs, topiramate showed superiority over frovatriptan at Month 2 in reduction of headache days, which was a secondary end point in the study (P = .036). Conclusions.— This pilot study demonstrated that statistical benefit for reduction of headache days over baseline for both pre-emptive frovatriptan and daily topiramate. Subjects utilizing pre-emptive frovatriptan experienced fewer adverse events leading to study withdrawal. Subjects utilizing daily topiramate had fewer headache days at Month 2. “
“Loss of benefit of a previously effective treatment regimen, also known as tolerance, can be an important barrier to the successful preventive treatment of migraine. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to identify the prevalence and possible mechanisms of drug tolerance in migraine prophylaxis. Results demonstrate that the frequency of tolerance to prophylactic migraine treatment is unknown, but available data support an estimate that it occurs in 1-8% of patients receiving prophylaxis. Four

broad types of tolerance R428 were identified that are likely to be relevant to migraine prophylaxis. These are pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, behavioral, and cross tolerance. The mechanisms that underlie these types of tolerance determine whether their effects can be overcome or minimized. For example, certain forms of tolerance may be affected by manipulation of environmental cues associated PLEKHB2 with drug administration, by the order in which drugs are used, and by the concomitant use of other medications. Many medications used for migraine

prophylaxis exert their effects through the endogenous opioid system. The implications of this finding are explored, particularly the parallels between medication overuse headache and tolerance to migraine prophylaxis. Given the many ways in which tolerance to migraine medications may develop, in some ways it is not surprising that migraine-preventive drugs stop working; it is more surprising that in many cases they do not. “
“Executive dysfunctions and white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging have been reported in migraine. The aim of this study was to determine whether any correlation between these 2 variables exists. Forty-four subjects affected by migraine with or without aura were compared with 16 healthy subjects. A battery of neuropsychological tests assessing executive functions was administered to all subjects. Number and total volume of white matter lesions were assessed in the whole brain and in the frontal lobe.

Because cysteines are involved, many if not all of these mutation

Because cysteines are involved, many if not all of these mutations can be diagnosed by multimer analysis. Although the VWF seems to be dysfunctional, DDAVP therapy is able to normalize not only the concentration but also the function of the protein in most if not all the patients [58]. Budde et al. have found that 22% of type 1 patients show this peculiar multimer pattern (i.e. 75 per year in their laboratory). A grey zone certainly exists, but the implementation

of multimer analysis as a first-line test together with an antigen and functional tests will detect 13% of patients within the grey zone who definitely have inherited VWD or AVWS. The pharmacokinetics of VWF has been studied in adults, selleck inhibitor but there are few data investigating the pharmacokinetics of VWF in children and adolescents. This section reviewed the pharmacokinetics of VWF throughout a patient’s lifespan. The aims of

treatment of VWD are to correct the abnormal platelet adhesion due to reduced and/or dysfunctional VWF and to increase the low level of factor VIII. The principles of treatment of VWD are as follows: Accurate diagnosis of the individual patient’s VWD type and baseline VWF:RCo and FVIII:C activity; Assessment of the severity of the haemorrhage to be treated or procedure to be performed; Determination of DDAVP responsiveness in a non-bleeding state; Knowledge of the VWF:RCo and factor VIII:C content of the product to be used if replacement therapy is necessary; Plan for monitoring when treating severe bleeds/major surgery; Plan for intervention if bleeding occurs despite recommended therapy [59]. There are intrinsic selleck products difficulties when studying pharmacokinetics in VWD. Problems include the heterogeneity of the disease (type 3, severe type 1, types 2A and 2M) and low compliance of patients involved

in pharmacokinetic studies. In a model of FVIII cycle in type 3 patients, at least for the first hour there is a plateau effect Rho due to an increase in FVIII concentration. Most pharmacokinetic studies in VWD patients do not fulfil the golden rule of general pharmacokinetics: the concentration of drug must decay to the baseline value at the end of single dose kinetics. In a study to investigate the effect of four plasma concentrates in 10 patients with severe VWD, none of the concentrates consistently normalized the bleeding time in a sustained manner [60]. The concentrates studied were an intermediate-purity, pasteurized FVIII–VWF concentrate (Humate-P); an intermediate-purity, dry-heated FVIII–VWF concentrate (8Y); a solvent/detergent-treated VWF concentrate, containing little FVIII (lot 87 9000 80); and a high purity solvent/detergent-treated FVIII–VWF concentrate (Alpha VIII). All concentrates were equally effective in attaining normal and sustained levels of FVIII:C postinfusion, although peak levels were more delayed after the VWF concentrate.