A multitude of therapeutic properties encourages researchers to i

A multitude of therapeutic properties encourages researchers to investigate the possibility of using the potential of Bifidobacterium in the prevention and treatment of other conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and depression. Although it is known that this website the beneficial effects are due to intestinal mucosal colonization by these bacteria, the cell components responsible for the colonization are still not determined. In addition to the beneficial effects

of probiotic administration, there were also negative effects including sepsis. Therefore research has been directed to identify specific components of Bifidobacterium responsible for probiotic effects. Currently researchers are focused on identifying, isolating and evaluating the properties of surface proteins that are probably involved in the adhesion of bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium, improving colonization. This paper is an overview of current knowledge on Bifidobacterium surface proteins. The ways of transport and anchoring proteins in Gram- positive bacterial cells, the assembly of cell wall, and a description of the genus Bifidobacterium are Vactosertib price presented.”
“Background: The development of Herceptin (R) is welcomed as a major advance in breast cancer treatment, while Myriad’s development of BRACAnalysis (R) is a widely used diagnostic. However useful and successful this product is, its presence in the public eye is tainted by predominantly

negative press about gene patenting and business practices.

Discussion: While retrospection invites a sharp contrast between Genentech’s triumphal narrative of scientific achievement and Myriad’s public image as a controversial FK866 price monopolist, a comparative history of these companies’ products reveals two striking consistencies:

patents and public discontent. Despite these similarities, time has reduced the narrative to that of hero versus villain: Genentech is lauded – at least for the final outcome of the Herceptin (R) story – as a corporate good citizen, Myriad as a ruthless mercenary. Since patents undergird both products yet the narratives are so different, the stories raise the question: why have patents taken the fall as the scapegoat in current biotechnology policy debate?

Summary: A widely publicized lawsuit and accompanying bad press have cast Myriad as a villain in the evolving narrative of biotechnology. While the lawsuit suggests that this villainy is attributable to Myriad’s intellectual property, we suggest through a comparative case study that, at least in the Myriad case, it is not simply about the patents but also other business strategies the company chose to pursue. Patents were a necessary but not sufficient cause of controversy.”

This study aimed to analyze the efficacy and toxicity of gemcitabine plus platinum chemotherapy for patients aged 70 years or older with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

05), or in

females than in males in Han (P < 0 01) Th

05), or in

females than in males in Han (P < 0.01). The c.457A allele frequency in Han was higher in high TG than in normal TG subgroups, in low APOA1 than in normal APOA1 subgroups, in males than in females, or in normal APOB than in high APOB subgroups (P < 0.05-0.01). The levels of TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and APOB in Hei Yi Zhuang were correlated with -1131T>C genotype or allele, and the levels of TG were associated with c.553G>T genotype (P < 0.05). The levels of TG, APOA1 and APOB in Han were correlated with c.457G>A genotype or allele, and the levels of TC were associated with -1131T>C LY2157299 molecular weight allele (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The differences in the lipid profiles between the two ethnic groups might partly result

from different APOA5 gene-environmental interactions. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level selleck differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and Nocodazole order group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence

on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities.”
“Glomerular involvement in patients with primary Sjogren’s syndrome (pSS) has rarely been reported. Among them, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and membranous nephropathy are the more common types. We report a middle-aged female presenting concurrently with nephrotic syndrome and microscopic hematuria, and her pSS was diagnosed by positive anti-Ro (SSA)/anti-La (SSB) autoantibodies, dry mouth, severely diffuse impaired function of both bilateral parotid and submandibular glands, and a positive Schirmer test. Renal pathology revealed minimal change disease and thin basement membrane nephropathy. The patient’s nephrotic syndrome resolved after treatment with corticosteroids. To our knowledge, this is the first report of minimal change disease in a patient with pSS. Copyright (C) 2011, Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.”
“Background and aims: rs17321515 SNP has been associated with variation in LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. This effect has never been studied in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia.

Overall, the indications for endovascular

management of A

Overall, the indications for endovascular

management of AAA are expanding to include increasingly complex and anatomically challenging aneurysms. Ongoing studies and optimization of imaging, in addition to technological refinement of stent grafts, will hopefully continue to broaden the utilization of EVAR.”
“SETTING: The United States (US) National Tuberculosis Surveillance System (NTSS), including 50 states, District of Columbia, and New York City.

OBJECTIVE: To examine disparities in characteristics and rates of Asian/Pacific Islander (API) and non-Hispanic find more White tuberculosis (TB) patients.

DESIGN: Descriptive analysis and logistic regression of selected 1993-2006 NTSS data. US Census Bureau Zip Code Tabulation Areas and geographic information system were used to compare API and non-Hispanic White TB patients by population density.

RESULT: Of 253299 TB cases, 1.9.8% were APIs and 23.2% were Whites; 94.2% APIs and 11.9% Whites were foreign-born. Factors that were most often associated with APIs were being female, age 15-24 years, extrapulmonary TB, and drug resistance. APIs were less GSK690693 price likely

than Whites to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive, homeless, substance abusers, or on directly observed therapy. From 1993 to 2006, the API TB case rate declined by 42.9% vs. 66.6% in Whites (P < 0.01). Being foreign-born was the strongest risk factor for TB, regardless of population densities, but APIs were more likely to have TB than foreign-born Whites at lower population densities.

CONCLUSION: Disparities in TB exist among US APIs and non-Hispanic Whites. TB program officials should allocate programs appropriately for foreign-born APIs in lower population density areas.”
“Purpose of reviewTo

describe the treatment of gender dysphoria in adolescents.Recent Cell Cycle inhibitor findingsCareful study and evaluation of children with persistent severe gender dysphoria has led to the recommendation that puberty be suppressed at Tanner Stage II. If the dysphoria persists until age 16, treatment with sex steroids of the appropriate gender may begin at age 16 and be followed by gender-appropriate surgery.SummaryProtocols and results of treatment of early adolescents have demonstrated that the harmful effects of persistent gender dysphoria can be prevented. Pubertal suppression in early puberty not only prevents the severe distress, but also allows healthy adolescent development living in the appropriate gender.”
“Cutaneous epithelioid and spindle cell neoplasms occasionally pose a significant diagnostic challenge on purely histologic grounds. Given the substantial clinicopathologic overlap between these lesions, especially in small biopsies, the use of immunohistochemical studies are essential.

Subsequently, whole blood of human volunteers was incubated with

Subsequently, whole blood of human volunteers was incubated with 1, 2.3, 4 or 8 mu Ci Tc-99m-MIBI. After a 30-min incubation, the lymphocytes were stimulated with a mitogen to assay for micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cells. The frequency of micronuclei

in samples treated with this radiopharmaceutical up to 2-fold (8 mu Ci) the concentration of Tc-99m-MIBI normally found in the blood of patients was not more than in control lymphocyte cultures. We concluded that there is no increased induction of micronuclei in lymphocytes incubated with Tc-99m-MIBI at the radioactivity doses used for diagnostic purposes.”
“One of the goals of bone tissue engineering is to design delivery methods for skeletal ABT-737 datasheet stem/progenitor cells to repair or replace bone. Although the materials used to retain cells play a central role in the quality of the constructs, DMH1 the source of cells is key for bone regeneration. Bone marrow is the most common cell source, but other tissues are now being explored, such as the periosteum, fat, muscle, cord blood, and embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. The therapeutic effect of exogenous stem/progenitor cells is accepted, yet their contribution to bone repair is not well defined. The in vitro osteo- and/or chondrogenic potential of these skeletal progenitors

do not necessarily predict their differentiation potential in vivo and their function may be affected by their ability to home correctly to bone. This review provides an overview of animal models used to test the efficacy of cell-based approaches. We examine the mechanisms of endogenous cell recruitment during bone repair and compare the role of local versus systemic cell recruitment. We discuss how the normal repair process can help define efficacious

cell sources for bone tissue engineering and improve their methods of delivery.”
“Background: DB289, [2,5-bis(4-amidinophenyl) furan bis-O-methylamidoxime], is a broad spectrum anti-parasitic compound which has been shown to be effective against Staurosporine in vitro malaria in recent clinical trials. DB75, [2,5-bis(4-amidinophenyl) furan], is the active metabolite of this drug. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism of action of DB75 in Plasmodium falciparum.

Methods: Live parasites were observed by confocal microscopy after treatment with organelle specific dyes and DB75, an inherently fluorescent compound. Parasites were exposed to DB75 and assessed for growth and morphological changes over time using blood smears and light microscopy. Also, to determine if DB75 affects gene transcription, real time PCR was used to monitor transcript levels over time for six developmentally expressed genes, including trophozoite antigen R45-like (PFD 1175w), lactate dehydrogenase (PF13_0141), DNA primase (PFI0530c), isocitrate dehydrogenase (PF13_0242), merozoite surface protein-1 (PF11475w), and merozoite surface protein-7 (PF13_0197).

(c) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Recent studies have

(c) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Recent studies have shown

that molecular control of inner floral organ identity appears to be largely conserved between monocots and dicots, but little is known regarding the molecular mechanism underlying development of the monocot outer floral organ, a unique floral structure in grasses. In this study, we report the cloning of the rice EXTRA GLUME1 (EG1) gene, a putative lipase gene that Baf-A1 in vitro specifies empty-glume fate and floral meristem determinacy. In addition to affecting the identity and number of empty glumes, mutations in EG1 caused ectopic floral organs to be formed at each organ whorl or in extra ectopic whorls. Iterative glume-like structures or new floral organ primordia were formed in the presumptive region of the carpel, resulting in an indeterminate floral meristem. EG1 is expressed strongly in inflorescence primordia and weakly in developing floral primordia. We also found that the floral meristem and organ identity gene OsLHS1 showed altered expression

selleck with respect to both pattern and levels in the eg1 mutant, and is probably responsible for the pleiotropic floral defects in eg1. As a putative class III lipase that functionally differs from any known plant lipase, EG1 reveals a novel pathway that regulates rice empty-glume fate and spikelet development.”
“During atherosclerosis monocyte-derived macrophages accumulate cholesteryl esters from low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) via lectin-like oxidised LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) and class AI and AII (SR-AI, SR-AII) and class B (SR-BI, CD36) scavenger receptors. Here we examined the hypothesis that hyperglycaemia may modulate receptor expression and hence lipid accumulation in macrophages. Human monocytes were matured into macrophages in 30 versus 5 mM glucose and receptor expression and lipid accumulation quantified. High glucose elevated LOX1 mRNA, but decreased SC79 chemical structure SR-AI, SR-BI, LDLR, and CD36 mRNA. SR-BI and CD36 protein levels were decreased. Normo- and hyperglycaemic cells accumulated cholesteryl esters from modified LDL to a greater extent than control

LDL, but total and individual cholesteryl ester accumulation was not affected by glucose levels. It is concluded that, whilst macrophage scavenger receptor mRNA and protein levels can be modulated by high glucose, these are not key factors in lipid accumulation by human macrophages under the conditions examined.”
“BACKGROUND: Oxidative absorption of hydrogen sulfide into a solution of ferric chelates is studied in a stirred cell glass reactor. The experiments were performed to investigate the degradation of chelates sodium salt of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) (Merck), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid diadisodium salt (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) at 313 K, pH 6, iron concentration 10 000 g L1 and Fe:chelate molar ratio 1:2.

To substantiate this hypothesis, we studied protection by methylp

To substantiate this hypothesis, we studied protection by methylproamine at both clonogenic survival and radiation-induced DNA damage, assessed by gamma H2AX (histone 2AX phosphorylation at serine 139) focus formation endpoints.

Materials and methods: The human keratinocyte cell line FEP1811 was used to study clonogenic survival and yield of gamma H2AX foci following

irradiation ((137)Cs gamma-rays) JAK inhibitor of cells exposed to various concentrations of methylproamine. Uptake of methylproamine into cell nuclei was measured in parallel.

Results: The extent of radioprotection at the clonogenic survival endpoint increased with methylproamine concentration up to a maximum dose modification factor (DMF) of 2.0 at 10 mu M. At least 0.1 fmole/nucleus of methylproamine is required to achieve a substantial MI-503 concentration level of radioprotection (DMF of 1.3) with maximum protection (DMF of 2.0) achieved at 0.23 fmole/nucleus. The gamma H2AX focus yield per

cell nucleus 45 min after irradiation decreased with drug concentration with a DMF of 2.5 at 10 mu M.

Conclusions: These results are consistent with the hypothesis that radioprotection by methylproamine is mediated by attenuation of the extent of initial DNA damage.”
“Macrophages, a heterogeneous and ubiquitous cell population representing up to 15% of the cellular content of different types of tissue, are the principal cell mediators in response to pathogens, inflammation process, tissue homeostasis and repair and play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis

and insulin resistance because of their capacity to be the major source of inflammatory cytokines, which can function through paracrine and endocrine mechanisms. Recently, differently activated macrophage populations have been described, depending on a large variety of microenvironmental signals, and it is now recognized that their activation plays a crucial role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. There is good evidence of the ability of conjugated linoleic acids BEZ235 manufacturer and polyphenolic compounds to modulate inflammation in experimental models involving macrophages. This observation leaves room to the intriguing hypothesis that macrophage polarization could represent one of the unifying mechanisms through which specific food components can exert anti-inflammatory effects in humans, contributing to the prevention of chronic diseases strongly linked to inflammation, such as atherosclerosis. Future studies should be addressed to substantiate this hypothesis, investigating whether or not physiological concentrations of food-derived metabolites can perturb macrophage activation in vitro.

“Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly Pneumocystis


“Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly Pneumocystis

carinii) pneumonia (PCP) is a rare but serious infection that usually occurs within a year after solid organ transplantation. PCP may occur after 1 year post transplantation, but the rate is reported to be very low. Studies have shown an association between cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in solid organ transplant patients and an increased risk of opportunistic infection. This increased risk is thought to be a result of the immunomodulatory effects of the CMV infection. We present a case of PCP infection occurring 13 years after a renal transplantation. This occurred following a recurrent CMV infection while the patient was on low-dose immunosuppressants.”

Pudendal neuralgia is a cause of chronic, disabling, and often intractable perineal pain presenting

as burning, tearing, sharp shooting, foreign body Givinostat supplier sensation, and it is often associated with multiple, perplexing functional symptoms.

Case Report.

We report a case of a 40-year-old man presenting with chronic pelvic pain see more due to pudendal nerve entrapment and successfully treated with palmitoylethanolamide (PEA).


PEA may induce relief of neuropathic pain through an action upon receptors located on the nociceptive pathway as well as a more direct action on mast cells via an ALIA (autocoid local injury antagonism) mechanism.

As recently demonstrated in Talazoparib in vitro animal models, the present case suggests that PEA could be a valuable pharmacological alternative to the most common drugs (anti-epileptics and antidepressants) used in the

treatment of neuropathic pain.”
“Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma in childhood. When localized in the middle ear and temporal bone, they are highly aggressive, whereas the outcome directly depends on an accurate and timely diagnosis, stage of the disease, and adequate multimodal therapy. Early clinical diagnosis of the temporal bone rhabdomyosarcoma is often difficult since clinical signs are not specific for this disease. We present a case of an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, botryoid subtype, of the middle ear in a girl aged 4 years and 4 months, diagnosed 34 days after the first symptoms – right ear pain with peripheral facial nerve palsy on the same side. The overall symptoms were poor, in no way suggesting such a serious condition. After the treatment, control follow-ups for more than 3 years showed no recurrence of the disease, while signs of the right peripheral facial palsy persist.

In cases of prolonged peripheral facial nerve palsy in children, not responding to conservative treatment, a temporal bone rhabdomyosarcoma should be considered in a differential diagnosis.

To inform future conservation measures for this poorly known spec

To inform future conservation measures for this poorly known species, we used ecological niche factor analysis, habitat suitability modelling and distance sampling to determir e landscape-scale habitat requirements and estimate the population size. Using GIS software, we integrated digital layers of ecogeographic variables with; (1) presence-only observations to derive and validate a habitat suitability

model using ecological niche factor analysis, and (2) distance sampling to determine population distribution and densities across vegetation types. We detected populations in only five of seven reserves which they had occupied in 2000. We estimate the global population size to be 16,821 individuals (range 8431-39, 104), 68% greater than the previously TPCA-1 datasheet estimated 10,000 individuals, with a single large reserve containing the majority (similar to 92%) of the global population. The Mallee Ernu-wren is a habitat specialist, primarily occurring in mallee-Triodia vegetation that has not been burnt for at least 15 years. The highest densities were in vegetation associations containing at least a 15% cover of Triodia, however, time since the habitat was last burnt was the overriding factor in determining densities. Large-scale wildfires are a pervasive threat:

to the global status of the Mallee Emu-wren, and the risk to remaining populations is exacerbated by the adverse impact of prolonged drought and the potential for altered fire regimes caused by global warming. Evaluation of the global population status, and the continued wildfire threat warranted selleck chemicals recent reclassification of the Mallee Emu-wren from Vulnerable to Endangered according to IUCN Red List categories and criteria. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Materials and methods: aEuro integral The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae click here SC7K((lys2–3)) ((auxotrophic for lysine)) was used as eukaryotic model. Exponential growing cells were exposed to the mentioned agents, as single and combined treatments. Lethal and mutation interaction

equations were determined as a function of doses according to quantitative models. DNA double-strand breaks were evaluated immediately after treatments, through pulsed-field electrophoresis and laser densitometry.

Results: aEuro integral All three agents induced significant mutant frequency. The gamma gamma aEuroS++Pt ++ E combination determined maximal lethal and mutagenic synergism, followed by gamma gamma aEuroS++ aEuroSPt and gamma gamma aEuroS++ aEuroSE combinations. Meanwhile, Pt aEuroS++ aEuroSE combination showed lethal additivity and very low mutagenic synergism. Pt aEuroS++ aEuroSE double combination determined moderate DNA degradation. DNA degradation after gamma gamma-exposure, was similar to that of gamma gamma aEuroS++ aEuroSPt, gamma gamma aEuroS++ aEuroSE and gamma gamma aEuroS++ aEuroSPt aEuroS++ aEuroSE combinations.

Copyright (C) 2010 S Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: Icodext

Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: Icodextrin, a glucose polymer with a polydispersity [ratio of weight-average molecular weight (Mw) to number-average molecular weight] of approximately 2.6, has been shown, compared with glucose, to provide superior ultrafiltration (UF) efficiency [ratio of UF to carbohydrate (CHO) absorbed] when used as an osmotic agent during a long-dwell peritoneal dialysis exchange. In an experimental rabbit model, we evaluated the effect of Mw on the UF and UF efficiency of glucose

polymers with low polydispersity.

Methods: A crossover trial in female New Zealand White rabbits (2.20 – 2.65 kg) with surgically implanted PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 cell line peritoneal catheters evaluated two glucose polymers at nominal concentrations of

7.5 g/dL: a 6K polymer (Mw: 6.4 kDa; polydispersity: 2.3) and a 19K polymer (Mw: 18.8 kDa; polydispersity: 2.0). Rabbits were randomized to receive either the 6K (n = 11) or the 19K (n = 12) solution during the first exchange (40 mL/kg body weight). The alternative solution was evaluated in a second exchange 3 days later. During each 4-hour dwell, the UF and total glucose polymer CHO absorbed were determined.

Results: The UF was higher for the 6K (p < 0.0001) than for the 19K polymer (mean +/- standard deviation: 73.6 +/- 30.8 mL vs. 43.0 +/- 20.2 mL), as was the amount of CHO absorbed (42.5% +/- 9.8% vs. 35.7% BAY 63-2521 concentration +/- check details 11.0%, p = 0.021). In spite of higher CHO absorption, an approximately 50% higher (p = 0.029) UF efficiency was achieved with the 6K polymer (28.3 +/- 18.8 mL/g) than with the 19K polymer (19.0 +/- 11.3 mL/g). The results were independent of the order of the experimental exchanges.

Conclusions: Glucose polymers with low polydispersity are effective osmotic agents in a rabbit model. The low-Mw polymer was more effective at generating UF and had a higher UF efficiency,

but those results came at the expense of the polymer being more readily absorbed from the peritoneal cavity. Perit Dial Int 2013; 33(2):124-131 www.PDIConnect.com epub ahead of print: 01 Nov 2012 doi:10.3747/pdi.2012.00009″
“The idea of localized resonance in phononic crystals is introduced to improve the low-frequency acoustic absorption of viscoelastic materials, which are widely used underwater to absorb the unwanted noise and meet a difficult challenge to enhance low-frequency absorption. Experimental measurements for acoustic absorptances of various viscoelastic polymer slabs embedded with locally resonant scatterers, i.e., heavy spheres coated by soft silicon rubber, are reported. Theoretical investigations using a layer-multiple-scattering method show good agreement with the experiment results, which supports unambiguously the observed low-frequency absorption phenomenon. The physical mechanism for the low-frequency absorption is also investigated by referring the elements of the Mie scattering matrix.

3 %) in this group, which was significantly higher than in patien

3 %) in this group, which was significantly higher than in patients younger than 80 years of age (P = 0.008). The survival of the elderly patients undergoing PD for pancreatic cancer was significantly shorter than that for the

same patient group with other diseases (median survival, 13 versus 82 months; P = 0.014). Only one elderly patient with pancreatic cancer survived more than 3 years.

PD for pancreatic cancer in patients aged 80 and older should be carefully selected, because it is IACS-10759 associated with a higher incidence of severe postoperative complications and a small change of long-term survival.”
“Study on the EtOAc soluble fraction from the bark of Populus ussuriensis Kom. resulted in the isolation of three phenolic glycosides, including populoside (1), 7-O-rho-coumaroylsalirepin (2) and 7-O-caffeoylsalirepin (3), among which 3 is a new compound. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Phenolic glycosides 1-3 exhibited excellent antioxidant activity, evaluated in the ABTS(+) radical scavenging assay.”

(PD) is an aggressive surgery with considerable operative risks, but offers the only chance for cure in patients with periampullary tumors. A growing number of elderly patients are being offered MK 2206 PD because of the aging of populations in developed countries. We examined surgical outcomes of PD in patients aged 75 years and older (a parts per thousand yen75 years).

A retrospective cohort study was performed in 65 consecutive patients who underwent PD for periampullary tumors at a single medical center during the

5 years selleck screening library from 2006 to 2010. We analyzed surgical outcomes such as mortality and morbidity after PD in patients aged a parts per thousand yen75 years (n = 21) compared to those in patients aged < 75 years (n = 44).

The positive rate of comorbidities such as hypertension was significantly higher in patients aged a parts per thousand yen75 years than in patients aged < 75 years (76 vs. 48 %; p = 0.03). The incidence of wound infection was significantly higher in patients aged a parts per thousand yen75 years than in patients aged < 75 years (19 vs. 0 %; p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in the mortality rate (0 vs. 2 %; p = 0.49) or the overall morbidity rate (33 vs. 32 %; p = 0.90). There was no significant difference in changes in body weight or serum albumin levels during the 3 months after PD between the two groups, but the recovery of serum prealbumin levels from 1 to 3 months after PD in patients aged a parts per thousand yen75 years was significantly delayed compared to that in patients aged < 75 years (p = 0.04). There was no statistically significant difference in long-term survival between the two groups.